Hormones and acne - testosterone and estrogen
The role of hormones in acne
Acne by its very nature can be considered a hormonal disease. Hormones are responsible for the maturation of the oil glands in our skin and only once matured do these glands develop the capability of becoming acne lesions. This is why children do not experience acne.1 While it is not known exactly how hormones affect acne, we do know that the skin is a target for hormones and can even produce hormones itself.2
TestosteroneDoctors and researchers find that increased androgen (male hormones) levels in both males and females can result in acne.1,3-4 Either the oil surplus created by androgens or some yet unknown reason seems to be instrumental in clogging hair follicles where bacteria grows and causes acne pimples and blemishes to form.
EstrogenAcne in women ebbs and flows more cyclically due to monthly menstruation. We can also see the effects of estrogen levels on acne during pregnancy and to a lesser degree, menopause. Doctors sometimes prescribe low-dose birth control pills to women to help regulate hormone levels and reduce acne symptoms. Doctors sometimes also prescribe androgen receptor blockers but there is less evidence of their efficacy at this time.1,5
Women can experience an acne flare-up or even acne for the first time in their lives in their 20s or even their 30s. It's prudent to find an endocrinologist (hormone specialist MD) to ensure hormones are within acceptable levels. If levels are within an acceptable range, proper topical treatment is most often sufficient.
- Berger TG, James WD and Odom RB. Andrew's Diseases of the Skin. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company, 2000.
- Chen WC and Zouboulis CC. "Hormones and the pilosebaceous unit." Dermato-Endocrinology. 2009; 1(2); 81-86.
- Alaghband-Zadeh J, et al. "Do Some Men with Acne Vulgaris Have Raised Levels of LH?" Clinical Endocrinology. 1999; 50(3): 393-397.
- Gilliland K, et al. "Androgen Metabolism in Sebaceous Glands from Subjects With and Without Acne." Archives of Dermatology. 1999; 135: 1041-1045.
- Arora MK, Seth S and Dayal S. "The relationship of lipid profile and menstrual cycle with acne vulgaris." Clinical Biochemistry. 2010; 43(18): 1415-1420.
- Chen WC, Thiboutot D and Zouboulis CC. "Cutaneous androgen metabolism: Basic research and clinical perspectives." The Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 2002; 119(5): 992-1007.