If You Use Retinoids, Will You Get Younger-looking Skin as You Treat Your Acne?
Yes, Retinoids Reduce the Appearance of Skin Aging by Promoting Renewal of the Skin, Helping to Reverse Sun Damage, and Promoting the Production of the Important Skin Protein, Collagen
The Essential Information
There are three topical retinoids that doctors commonly prescribe for acne for their ability to unclog pores and reduce inflammation:
All of these prescriptions reduce acne to a moderate degree. However, as a bonus, they also fight the signs of aging by:
- Keeping the skin turning over
- Protecting against sun damage
- Increasing in the amount of collagen in the skin
This all sounds great, but there are two things to be aware of:
- Results are temporary. As soon as you stop using any of the retinoids, any anti-aging benefit you received will quickly fade.
- Retinoids only partially clear acne. Don't expect to get completely clear using a retinoid alone.
As far back as 3000 years ago, Egyptians used vitamin A from rat livers to treat various health problems. Scientists confirmed the necessity of vitamin A in normal skin health and appearance in the early 20th century. By 1968, scientists began developing synthetic vitamin A derivatives, called retinoids, which were safer and provided improved clinical efficacy. Dermatologists then began prescribing topical retinoids for the treatment of acne.
Scientists first developed the retinoid called tretinoin. However, today there are three major retinoids that doctors prescribe for acne:
Soon after tretinoin hit the market, female patients began reporting changes in the appearance of their skin, noting fewer wrinkles and smoother skin after undergoing retinoid treatment. Following these reports, scientists conducted studies in mice and in humans and concluded that retinoids do indeed decrease symptoms of aging, including sun damage, abnormal pigmentation, and skin growths.1,2
How Retinoids Work
Retinoids reduce acne, on average, by about 50%. However, they also fight the signs of aging via:
- Renewal of skin layers
- Protection against sun damage
- Increase in the amount of a skin protein called collagen
Renewal of skin layers
The skin consists of layers that work together to create a barrier for the body. The skin barrier is tough but pliable, and is constantly renewing itself in order to keep the barrier strong. Vitamin A is essential for skin renewal. Retinoids naturally occur in the skin, and the presence of these natural retinoids affects the skin's ability to undergo its natural turnover and renewal process, which is especially important to promote a healthy, strong skin barrier after a skin injury or wound.3
Protection against sun damage
Each day, the skin's barrier is exposed to the sun and pelted with ultraviolet (UV) radiation. This exposure can cause the skin to become rough, uneven, and abnormally pigmented.2 Scientists have shown that "retinoids may counteract some deleterious actions of UV radiation..."3 In much the same way that vitamin A promotes natural skin renewal, retinoids promote healing of sun-damaged skin by decreasing wrinkles, improving skin texture, and clearing abnormal pigmentation.
Increase in the amount of collagen
Directly underneath the skin layer resides another type of tissue full of structural components that support and help maintain the skin barrier. One such protein is collagen, and it is crucial in preventing wrinkle formation and smoothing skin texture. Researchers first identified that the particular retinoid, tretinoin, increased collagen production by 80% in sun-damaged skin. The increase in collagen provides the proper support and structure for the skin's barrier, which results in smoothing of the skin.5
The Effectiveness of Topical Retinoids Against Skin Aging
Dermatologists often initially prescribe 0.025 - 0.05% tretinoin as a topical gel or cream to be applied nightly. Scientists identified that the length of time between 0.05% tretinoin treatment initiation and a reduction in signs of skin aging reduction was as little as three months. Three months post-therapy, patients reported moderate improvements in fine wrinkles. By six months, patients reported a reduction in skin roughness and coarse wrinkling, and after twelve months of tretinoin treatment, scientists found an increase in the amount of collagen present in the skin of patients. Generally, after the first twelve months of treatment, the tretinoin concentration is decreased to 0.01%.5
Applied as a topical gel or cream, 0.1% tazarotene is generally prescribed by dermatologists to be applied nightly. In one study, scientists identified that tazarotene-treated patients reported a reduction in signs of aging by two weeks after beginning treatment. At week two patients reported a decrease in abnormal pigmentation. By two months patients reported a decrease in fine wrinkling, and by three months patients reported a reduction in coarse wrinkling, skin roughness, and pore size. Scientists have shown that tazarotene improves a wider variety of aging symptoms than other retinoids.4
In one study, scientists compared the effectiveness of tazarotene to that of tretinoin over the course of 24 weeks. They discovered that "there was no therapeutic difference between tazarotene 0.1% cream and tretinoin 0.05% cream after 24 weeks..." However, patients receiving 0.01% tazarotene tended to respond faster to therapy, with scientists observing a larger decrease in the signs of aging at 12 and 20 weeks than with tretinoin 0.05% treatment.4
The effectiveness of adapalene in acne treatment is well-documented, but scientists have only performed two small trials investigating its effectiveness in the treatment of aging. In one of these studies, scientists treated patients daily with either a 0.1% or 0.3% adapalene topical gel for one month, followed by application twice daily for nine months. After nine months, scientists observed lightening of sun-damaged areas, a decrease in crusty, thick skin patches called actinic keratosis, and wrinkles.1 The second study examined 40 females applying 0.3% adapalene gel daily for six months. After study completion, the patients reported a 29 - 52% reduction in facial wrinkles.6
Long-term effects of retinoid therapy
One limitation of retinoid therapy is that results of treatment are only visible to patients regularly applying the medication. Once treatment has stopped, a patient's skin will revert back to its original stateover time. Therefore, patients must continually apply retinoids to maintain younger-looking skin.5
Side Effects of Retinoid Treatment
Patients using retinoids for the treatment of aging have reported side effects. The main patient-reported side effects of retinoid treatment include skin reddening, irritation, dryness, and itching. Scientists researching these side effects found that they are often dose-dependent and resolve when patients are treated with lower doses. For example, 90% of patients applying 0.1% tretinoin cream on a daily basis exhibited these side effects. However, patients receiving a 0.025% concentration of tretinoin showed "far fewer adverse effects."5 Fortunately, researchers compared the effectiveness of lower retinoid concentrations for the treatment of aging and found that the lower concentrations provided the same anti-aging effects as the higher concentrations, but without the irritating side effects. One study compared the anti-aging effects of 0.025% tretinoin treatment to those of 0.5% tretinoin treatment over eight months. The scientists observed no difference in the anti-aging efficacy between either concentration.5 Further, a study that observed adapalene side effects stated, "[L]ocal irritation is relatively uncommon with...adapalene… In the majority of cases, the retinoid reaction occurs early in treatment and resolves gradually."5 Therefore, the researchers suggested that adapalene could be successfully used with lesser side effects.6
Retinoids are a diverse class of vitamin A derivatives prescribed by dermatologists to patients for the treatment of acne and the appearance of aging skin. Scientists have extensively studied the anti-aging effects of retinoids, and have concluded retinoids reduce aging by promoting skin renewal, helping to correct sun damage, and promoting the production of collagen. Although patients will occasionally display side effects from retinoid therapy, dermatologists can control these irritating effects by decreasing the prescribed dose or switching to a better-tolerated retinoid. Over the course of several months, retinoids decrease the appearance of aging. However, patients must continue retinoid therapy to maintain this younger-looking skin. If you'd like more information on retinoid function and effectiveness in the treatment of acne, check out the following articles: What is the Difference Between Retinol and Retinoids, Will the Skin Really Worsen Before It Improves on the Retinoids Tretinoin, Adapalene, or Tazarotene?.
- Mukherjee, S. et al. Retinoids in the treatment of skin aging: an overview of clinical efficacy and safety. Clin Interv Aging 1, 327 - 348 (2006).
- Grunebaum, L. D. & Baumann, L. S. Nonprescription topical treatments for skin rejuvenation. Facial Plast Surg 30, 3 - 11(2014).
- Sorg, O. & Saurat, J. H. Topical retinoids in skin aging: A focused update with reference to sun-induced epidermal vitamin a deficiency. Dermatology 228, 314 - 325 (2014).
- Roeder, A. et al. Tazarotene: Therapeutic strategies in the treatment of psoriasis, acne and photoaging. Skin Pharmacol Physiol 17, 111 - 118 (2004).
- Hubbard, B., Unger, J. G. & Rohrich, R. J. Reversal of skin aging with topical retinoids. Plast Reconstr Surg 133, 481e - 90e (2014).
- Herane, M. I. et al. Clinical efficacy of adapalene (differin 0.3% gel in Chilean women with cutaneous photoaging. J Dermatolog Treat 23, 57 - 64 (2012).