Does Smoking Cigarettes Cause Acne?

Looking at the Research and Possible Links Between Smoking and Acne

Does Smoking Cigarettes Cause Acne?

Article Summary

There is no conclusive evidence demonstrating that smoking causes acne. Four studies show that smoking increases acne, while three studies show that smoking actually reduces acne. However, smoking does negatively impact the skin through slowing the healing process, which could, in turn, impact how quickly acne lesions heal. Significantly, smoking also increases inflammation in the body. This is particularly noteworthy for acne sufferers since inflammation plays an important role in the formation of acne. While smoking may or may not make acne worse, it will make you look worse. It is closely linked with wrinkles and premature aging.

You've heard the statistics. Smoking causes three million deaths per year worldwide.1-2 It causes many forms of cancer and untold pain and suffering, not to mention billions of dollars in preventable health care costs. Common sense would say that smoking negatively affects almost every bodily condition, including acne. But evidence remains unclear whether this is true.3-9
 

Cigarettes in Ash Tray


To date, nine studies have examined the association between smoking and acne. Of these, three reported that smoking actually reduces acne, at least in some populations.4,7-8
 

However, four studies reached the opposite conclusion, that smoking is associated with increased acne.5,9-11
 


Other studies have showed no statistical difference between smokers and non-smokers in regards to acne.3,6 In short, evidence is conflicting and the medical research community needs quite a bit more data to come to a consensus.
 

Healthy Lungs / Smoker's Lungs


Smoking Impairs Wound Healing and Worsens Skin Appearance

While smoking may or may not aggravate acne, it does harm the skin.12 Among other things, smoking is linked to poor wound healing. Medically speaking, acne lesions are wounds, and thus it would make sense that smoking might cause our bodies to heal acne lesions more slowly. In order for acne lesions to heal, the skin needs to receive sufficient blood supply, and skin cells need to divide in order to make new cells to repair the wound. Smoking reduces these functions and considerably slows down the healing process.1-2

Smoking is also closely associated with wrinkles and premature skin aging. Quitting smoking, or not taking up smoking in the first place, is one of the best preventative measures against premature aging. Smoking also stains the teeth and can hasten hair loss.1-2 Not surprisingly, in surveys of body esteem, smokers tend to rank lower than non-smokers.13
 

Smoking Impairs Wound Healing and Worsens Skin Appearance


Smoking Increases Inflammation

Harmful effects of smoking are largely due to the fact that smoking results in the production of compounds called free radicals, which cause the body to produce inflammatory molecules called cytokines.14 These molecules play a role in the early stages of acne formation. Studies have shown that cytokine levels are high in clogged pores and when healthy skin is exposed to high levels of cytokines, it starts to develop acne.15
 

Smoking Increases Inflammation
 
Chest Journal

What about e-cigarettes? A study published in 2016 in the journal Chest showed that tobacco and electronic cigarettes both increase the levels of inflammatory molecules (sNOX2-dp and 8-isoPGF2a) and decrease the levels of anti-inflammatory molecules (vitamin E and nitric oxide) in the blood. “After having smoked either a T-cigarette or an E-cigarette, significant changes in the levels of sNox2-dp, 8-isoPGF2α, Vitamin E and NO bioavailability (were found).”14
 

E-Cigarettes Also Increase Inflammatory Molecules


Smoking  May Change Hormone Levels

One of the ways that smoking may influence acne is by changing hormone levels. Hormones, particularly higher than normal levels of testosterone in both men and women, and imbalances of the female hormones estrogen and progesterone in women, are known to worsen acne. Studies have shown that smoking reduces levels of estrogen in women and can impair the function of the ovaries, the organs that produce estrogen. Smoking can also cause menstrual cycles to become irregular.
 

European Journal of Endocrinology

The link between smoking and testosterone is not as clear, with studies reporting conflicting data. Testosterone is present in both males and females, and is intricately linked with acne. Higher testosterone levels usually mean more incidence and severity of acne. We only have research on testosterone levels in male smokers at this time. The research suggests that bioavailable testosterone, or the testosterone available to the body’s tissues, seems to remain unchanged in smokers. A review in the European Journal of Endocrinology concluded, “Significantly increased, decreased and unchanged levels of total testosterone in male smokers have been reported in various studies…No significant differences in the levels of bioavailable testosterone have been demonstrated between smokers and nonsmokers.”16
 

Smoking May Change Hormone Levels


Nicotine, the Wild Card

As with many things in life, there are exceptions to the rule. For instance, evidence is showing that smoking may actually help protect against mouth sores and rosacea. The potential positive effects of smoking are most likely from nicotine, and not from smoking itself. Nicotine by itself is not necessarily harmful. In the case of acne, the constriction of blood vessels that nicotine produces may inhibit the production of more severe forms of acne in a lucky few people.17 How and if this happens is still up for debate.
 

Can Nicotine Protect Against Rosacea?

 

The Experts at Acne.org

Our team of medical doctors, biology & chemistry PhDs, and acne experts work hand-in-hand with Dan (Acne.org founder) to provide the most complete information on all things acne. If you find any errors in this article, kindly use this Feedback Form and let us know.

References:

  1. Freiman, A., Bird, G., Metelitsa, A. I., Barankin, B. & Lauzon, G. J. Cutaneous effects of smoking. J. Cutan. Med. Surg. 8, 415–423 (2004).
  2. Morita, A. Tobacco smoke causes premature skin aging. J. Dermatol. Sci. 48, 169–175 (2007).
  3. Firooz, A., Sarhangnejad, R., Davoudi, S. M. & Nassiri-Kashani, M. Acne and smoking: is there a relationship? BMC Dermatol. 5, 2 (2005).
  4. Klaz, I., Kochba, I., Shohat, T., Zarka, S. & Brenner, S. Severe acne vulgaris and tobacco smoking in young men. J. Invest. Dermatol. 126, 1749–1752 (2006).
  5. Schafer, T., Nienhaus, A., Vieluf, D., Berger, J. & Ring, J. Epidemiology of acne in the general population: the risk of smoking. Br. J. Dermatol. 145, 100–104 (2001).
  6. Jemec, G. B. et al. Have oral contraceptives reduced the prevalence of acne? a population-based study of acne vulgaris, tobacco smoking and oral contraceptives. Dermatology 204, 179–184 (2002).
  7. Rombouts, S., Nijsten, T. & Lambert, J. Cigarette smoking and acne in adolescents: results from a cross-sectional study. J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 21, 326–333 (2007).
  8. Mills, C. M., Peters, T. J. & Finlay, A. Y. Does smoking influence acne? Clin. Exp. Dermatol. 18, 100–101 (1993).
  9. Chuh, A. A., Zawar, V., Wong, W. C. & Lee, A. The association of smoking and acne in men in Hong Kong and in India: a retrospective case-control study in primary care settings. Clin. Exp. Dermatol. 29, 597–599 (2004).
  10. Shen, Y. et al. Prevalence of acne vulgaris in Chinese adolescents and adults: a community-based study of 17,345 subjects in six cities. Acta Derm. Venereol. 92, 40–44 (2012).
  11. Capitanio, B. et al. Acne and smoking. Dermatoendocrinol. 1, 129–135 (2009).
  12. Just-Sarobe, M. [Smoking and the skin]. Actas Dermosifiliogr. 99, 173–184 (2008).
  13. Kornblau, I. S., Pearson, H. C. & Breitkopf, C. R. Demographic, behavioral, and physical correlates of body esteem among low-income female adolescents. J. Adolesc. Health 41, 566–570 (2007).
  14. Carnevale, R. et al. Acute Impact of Tobacco vs Electronic Cigarette Smoking on Oxidative Stress and Vascular Function. Chest 150, 606–612 (2016).
  15. Szabo, K. et al. Interleukin-1A +4845(G> T) polymorphism is a factor predisposing to acne vulgaris. Tissue Antigens 76, 411–415 (2010).
  16. Kapoor, D. & Jones, T. H. Smoking and hormones in health and endocrine disorders. Eur. J. Endocrinol. 152, 491–499 (2005).
  17. Metelitsa, A. I. & Lauzon, G. J. Tobacco and the skin. Clin. Dermatol. 28, 384–390 (2010).
See More References

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