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vitamin B12 - there are 4 different forms.

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Vitamin B12 is the name given to a group of related compounds containing cobalt as the central

ion in a corrin ring. The cobalt ion can be coordinated to a methyl, 5�€™-deoxyadenosyl-,hydroxy- or cyano- group. Hydroxycobalamin and cyanocobalamin used in food supplements

are transformed in the human body by coordinating with other ligands into methylcobalamin

and 5-deoxyadenosylcobalamin. The latter two are actively involved in endogenous

metabolism. Thus, 5-deoxyadenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin can be considered to

represent naturally occurring endogenous derivatives of vitamin B12.

Intake of vitamin B12 may originate from food, from food supplements and from other sources.

Exposure to cobalamin vitamers depends on the frequency of consumption of the foods containing these compounds.

Kidney (lamb) and liver (lamb, beef, calf, pork) for instance can contain 69-122 ug/100 g, heart (beef) and egg yolk 5-50 ug/100 g, and fish and milk 0.2-5 µg /100 g. 5-Deoxyadenosylcobalamin accounts for 50-70% of the total vitamin B12 in organ meat. In cows milk vitamin B12 is mainly present as 5-deoxyadenosylcobalamin (Castle and Hale, 1998)

Major dietary sources of vitamin B12, mainly in the forms of methyl-, deoxyadenosyl- and

hydroxycobalamin, include meat (e.g. >0.1 mg/kg in lamb), particularly liver (>0.1 mg/kg) and

fish (e.g. 0.03-0.1 mg/kg in salmon, 0.01-0.03 mg/kg in tuna) (EVM, 2003). Dietary vitamin

B12 only comes from animal sources, mainly from dairy products, fish and (red) meat.

Therefore individuals consuming large amounts of liver and some types of fish (sardines) may

have high intakes in contrast to individuals avoiding animal products.

1 ug or mcg=1/1000 of a milligram.

oysters and clams are great sources as well.

some cool info-

Effects of methylcobalamin on the proliferation of androgen-sensitive or estrogen-sensitive malignant cells in culture and in vivo.

Ultra-high dose methylcobalamin promotes nerve regeneration

Experimental study of antitumor effect of methyl-B12

Effects of vitamin B12 on plasma melatonin rhythm in humans: increased light sensitivity phase-advances the circadian clock

#1.critical nutritional issues- b12(three forms exist), Calcium(yogurt, cheese or calcium phosphate supps) and vitamin d(sun or supps not to exceed 1000 iu). heme iron-most absorbable from meat only, clams are high. these are the most difficult vitamins to get and absorb. All others or about the same in difficulty in absorption. MAgnesium in our food supply is generally low as well, try natural calm supps.

#2 Fats- monounsaturated should dominate(olives), followed by polyunsaturated plant sources(nuts) but not if you have acne. the health benefits of fish oil and fish are controversial and i dont consume them due to mercury contamination and immune supression avoid processed fats if possible.

#3 Protein/amino acids- dairy and eggs best sources for tryptophan and methionine which convert to powerful antioxidants melatonin and glutathione.

#4 Carotenoids- alpha- beta carotene, beta cryptoxanthin, lutein zeaxanthin, astaxanthin. these are vital to human nutrition, carrots, butternut squash, pumpkin, chili pepper and cayenne pepper are the best sources.

#5 Regularity-BM at least once a day, Moist, large stools, 1 piece ideal, no maldigestion, no floating stools indicative of maldigested fat. HOW- insoluble fiber- wheat and cooked vegetables. soluble fiber-oats/ good bacteria ferment soluble fiber making short chain fatty acids that inhibit pathogens.

#6 Circadian cycles-Light, get up with the sun, and expose your entire body to it. darkness-melatonin is released upon the sensing of absolute darkness. sleep in a pitch black room, try to ensure 10 hours total darkness, wear sunglasses before bed. do not eat too late at night.

#7 Desirable physiological states(positive moods/emotions) do precisely what you like and what feels good to you, but not regardless of consequences, just from a perspective that, you own your life, and can determine precisely what you do with it and need not answer or ask of permission from anyone,achieving maximum autonomy and self government.

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