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alternativista

Good Things For The Many Factors That Lead To Acne

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Yeah definitely. I really want to take a holistic approach to treat acne, and lots of posts are encouraging, and there are plenty that are discouraging. Whenever I feel like "Aha! All I have to do is this!", there's a thread stating they had no luck doing exactly what I was thinking. Though that's no reason to not try it, cause like you said, everyone is different.

I'm encouraged by the fact that all the cleansers and medicines and creams i've used have only temporarily succeeded in suppression, which indicates to me that they're only meant for a temporary fix (at least for me!) I really hope that making improvements to my overall health will have a positive effect on my face.

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Mercola article about the evils in potato chips especially Pringles which he calls cancer in a can. It contains a link to a report on an EU study on Heat-Generated Food Toxicants (HEATOX) in which they found that 'there are more than 800 heat-induced compounds, of which 52 are potential carcinogens. In addition to their finding that acrylamide does pose a public health threat, the HEATOX scientists also discovered that you're far less likely to ingest dangerous levels of the toxin when you eat home-cooked foods compared to industrially or restaurant-prepared foods.'

http://articles.merc...11107_DNL_art_1

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Could be a useful tool:

http://www.greenmedi...m/page/about-us

GreenMedInfo.com exists in order to provide free and convenient access to the biomedical research available today on the therapeutic value of natural substances in disease prevention and treatment.* This website provides physicians, health care practitioners, clinicians, researchers and laypersons with an evidence-based resource through which the potential or actual therapeutic value of vitamins, minerals, herbs and foods can be determined. We also provide an alternative toxicology database which enables users to access information on the harmful properties of drugs, chemicals, vaccines, etc., which is not readily available elsewhere. Read More Here...

For example, Here's their page on Zinc listing several studies on zinc and acne as well as other skin and health issues. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/substance/zinc

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something I don't have time to follow up on right now: possible genes involved in acne

'Polymorphisms in the Human Cytochrome P-450 1A1 Gene (CYP1A1) as a Factor for Developing Acne' http://www.klinikum-...les/64_poly.pdf

Edited by alternativista

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alternativista, many thanks for the comprehensive lists! They're a bit overwhelming right now so I hope I soon get time to investigate them further.

I have one question though. You may have answered it already and my search function didn't work, I don't know. Btw I appreciate that you're not a doctor, however you are obviously very knowledgable on the subject so perhaps you might be able to advise? I'll include as much detail as possible in case every detail counts.

Anyway, I need a good all round antioxidant such as alpha lipoic acid, HOWEVER I am on levothyroxine (Synthroid) due to hypothyroidism caused by being put on lithium from an early age, so I cannot take alpha lipoic acid because of the contraindications. I also have several other conditions (bipolar disorder, PCOS, endometriosis, SAD, IBS, insomnia; which I'm sure are all inter-related) that affect my hormones and give me acne, eczema and other forms of dermatitis. I now take fluoxetine for the bipolar (stopped the lithium years and years ago) and melatonin for the insomnia. Both work intermittently. No idea about the Synthroid though.

Given my compromises, instead of alpha lipoic acid might you have any idea which anti-oxidant would be beneficial for me? Btw sorry my English sucks, I'm tired right now and can't think straight! lol

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Given my compromises, instead of alpha lipoic acid might you have any idea which anti-oxidant would be beneficial for me? Btw sorry my English sucks, I'm tired right now and can't think straight! lol

Different antioxidants do different things in different parts of the body to different free radicals. You can't pick one. You need to consume a variety of colorful, flavorful whole fruits, veggies, herbs, teas and spices.

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Hasn't been bumped in a while. I was discouraged for a while when the links were all broken by the upgrade. But it looks like they've done something to forward you to the new path structure so they all work again. I'm glad I didn't waste any time trying to fix all the links.

Anyway, I was thinking of gathering a list of things we should monitor/have tested in an annual checkup as opposed to the things the medical establishment think are the most important. They'd overlap of course. Like blood pressure.

So, to start:

-Vitamin D levels

-C Reactive Protein (CRP) and other markers of chronic inflammation

-Marker of chronic or frequent elevated blood sugar. Can't think of it offhand.

-LDL cholesterol particle size

Edited by alternativista

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Some nutrients/flora that hinder absorption of BPA in plastics and can linings:

http://www.greenmedi...sorption-bisphe

The probiotics Bifidobacterium breve and Lactobacillus casei reduce the intestinal absorption of bisphenol A by facillitating its excretion. - GreenMedInfo Summary

As does, quercetin, black tea and others: http://www.greenmedi...phenol-toxicity

So, if you keep your intestinal flora in good shape you will have less of a problem with this endocrine disruptor that pollutes our lives. And many other pathogens like salmonella and e. coli.

More on probiotics and how they protect your from foodborne pathogens.

-Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium Breve have been found to protect you from e. coli

-L. Rhamnosus is supposed to be the most beneficial for Candida but elsewhere I've read recommendations for acidopholis.

-Bifidobacterium lactis can prevent damage to intestines from wheat, protect against e. coli, salmonella, etc

-Lactobacillus acidophilus protects from lysteria, salmonella, h. pylori

-Lactobacillus casei - salmonella, e. coli, h. pylori

It's important to understand that there are many strains of these pathogens as well as many strains of probiotics. Just get a big assortment of probiotics. And avoiding killing yours with antibiotics and too much sugars,

More info: http://www.acne.org/messageboard/index.php/topic/159595-kefir-ginger-root-for-stomachs-stripped-from-antibiotics/page__view__findpost__p__2542751

http://www.acne.org/messageboard/index.php/topic/259933-for-those-who-are-taking-enzymes/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Probiotic#Strains

Edited by alternativista

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Some nutrients/flora that hinder absorption of BPA in plastics and can linings:

http://www.greenmedi...sorption-bisphe

The probiotics Bifidobacterium breve and Lactobacillus casei reduce the intestinal absorption of bisphenol A by facillitating its excretion. - GreenMedInfo Summary

As does, quercetin, black tea and others: http://www.greenmedi...phenol-toxicity

So, if you keep your intestinal flora in good shape you will have less of a problem with this endocrine disruptor that pollutes our lives.

I just started consuming more canned salmon (and I'm just starting to really enjoy the taste...hated it at first) and then I started reading about BPA. I thought it would be a small factor, but it turns out that BPA can actually be absorbed by your body in pretty significant amounts.

Thanks for the link, all the more reasons to pick up probiotics soon.

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A Mercola Newsletter article mentioned that some researchers have found that cans are a worse source than plastic bottles. But, it depends on what's in the can. Acidic foods tend to leach out the BPA. Avoid tomatoes and most fruits including juices.

If canned salmon is what you can afford, then I would keep eating it and avoid other sources.

However, they say that our waterways are filled with plastic particles that the wildlife are consuming, much of which come from the drain in your washing machine when you wash your polar fleece, acrylic sweaters and other such clothing. We need better filters on the machines.

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Yeah canned salmon is so cheap and I think it really extends how far your dollar goes when it comes to fish. I'll look around for some BPA free brands. I don't really have any other exposure to plastic bottles or cans, really. My family has a water dispenser thing, where you buy giant 5 gallon jugs and fill them with water...we've been using it for years though, does the BPA content ever diminish or get washed away? I honestly don't know why we pay money for that water, when we have a perfectly good fridge dispensing filtered water.

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^ That's what I'm had for dinner. Whole Foods had Turkey liver form diestal's range raised turkeys for Thanksgiving and again before Christmas. I froze some so I'll have some at least once every couple of weeks.

-------------------------------------------------

MDA blogs posts on Cholesterol and what use you can get from a Standard cholesterol test. Or rather tests, because they fluctuate and one test is useless.

These are the the useful things the tests can tell you:

  • Trends – Are your triglycerides going down over time? That’s great. Is your HDL trending up? Also good.
  • Normal fluctuations – Your numbers can jump around 20-30 points in either direction between readings without it necessarily meaning anything.
  • TC:HDL-C ratioLower is better and indicates fewer LDL particles.
  • Triglyceride:HDL-C ratioLower is better and indicates larger LDL (and, usually, fewer) particles. Ideally, this will be close to 1 or lower; one study (PDF) found that 1.33 was the cut off.


    Read more:

http://www.marksdail.../#ixzz1hs9L54kb

About Triglycerides: These are fats made in the liver from the carbs you eat. They're used by cells for energy. VLDL (very low-density lipoprotein) carries triglycerides around in the body, delivering them to cells for energy. When VLDLs lose most of their triglycerides, they become smaller and denser, and now they're LDLs. The more triglycerides you have, the more VLDL is needed to move it around the body. So if you're eating lots of carbs, your triglycerides are going to be higher, and since VLDL becomes LDL when it deposits its triglycerides into the cells, your LDL will also be higher.

It all boils down to inflammation. Inflammation is the number one factor in heart disease. This is an accepted fact now, but it still gets little attention and no real prevention or treatment. Think about it: you have your cholesterol levels checked every five years or more if your profile is “problematic.” When do you have biomarkers for inflammation checked? Unless you’ve had a heart attack or been diagnosed with a serious medical condition, probably never.

Inflammation. What is it caused by? Not fat, but carbohydrates. Yes, sugars and processed carbs are highest on the list of perpetrators here, but grains and starches as a whole contribute to the problem. LDL rises directly not with the amount of saturated fat you eat but with rising levels of inflammation caused by carbs and trans fats.

Oxidation. Furthermore, nearly every study suggests that LDL is only a true threat when it’s oxidized. What oxidizes it? Free radicals. We’re talking trans fats primarily, that beast of an additive found in countless food products (as opposed to foods). What counteracts free radicals (because we all naturally have some in us)? Anti-oxidants: veggies and fruits, of course, as well as nuts, olive oil, etc. Consider also a broad-based multi-antioxidant supplement containing those nutrients shown to decrease oxidation.

Read more: http://www.marksdailyapple.com/cholesterol/#ixzz1j65e8i14

And another post about advanced cholesterol tests which will measure what you really need to know: LDL cholesterol particle size. Size Matters! You want big ones.However there are no standards for these tests and results vary wildly.

http://www.marksdail.../#axzz1hmFNtsBv

So then, I decided to search for info on what upregulates/downregulates LDL receptors. Because this is where the problem lies (along with particle size). When the receptors don't take in the LDL, it goes back into the bloodstream and gets oxidized and stored as plaque on your arteries.

And I found that Thyroid hormone (T3) stimulates LDL receptors (and promotes uptake of cholesterol), therefore lack of thyroid hormone results in decreased LDL receptors and decreased LDL (cholesterol) uptake. So this should make hypothyroidism a huge concern. (so why isn't it? Why is it so notoriously underdiagnosed?) http://ahdc.vet.corn...hem/cholest.htm

Also, diabetes millitus/syndrome X causes a downregulation of the receptors.

http://blogs.webmd.c...ers-part-2.html

Diet, exercise, fibrates, niacin and omega-3 FA all shift LDL particle size from small to large, by decreasing TG synthesis. Statins do not shift LDL particle size (per se), they simply upregulate receptors which clear apoB particles.

Other things that stimulate/mediate LDL receptors

-Prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) and prostaglandins are inhibited by NSAIDs, corticosteroids and various inflammatory responses

-Conjugated Linoleic Acid

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Coconut or almond milk, ginger and Tumeric tea recipe

http://www.marksdail.../#axzz1hmFNtsBv

Edited by alternativista

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Term of the Day

keratolytic - agents pertaining to or promoting keratolysis -shedding of dead skin cells.

Word found on a bottle of expensive pet shampoo my vet sold to me. And in researching for an alternative, I discovered that they are things like AHAs, BHAs. And sulfur! I knew sulfur was supposed to aid in cell turnover somehow, but hadn't read that it had the same benefits as salicylic acid. And yet another way topical tumeric and other such topicals help acne. Another is it's anti-microbial properties, of course. MSM could also be applied topically.

Article listing all kinds of keratolytic and exfoliating agents: http://www.gracemedi..._treatments.htm

Be sure to visit the section on hyperkeratinization for more info: http://www.acne.org/...ost__p__2580171 I've just added some new info, such as another enzyme that dissolves dead skin cells and lets them exfoliate normally. It's regulated by estrogen, which could be why that's a factor for many people.

Edited by alternativista

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you are so knowledgable and find your information fascinating.  Im still struggling after changing my diet a year ago.  I'm 44 and have rosacea as well as sebhorreic dermatits.  I also suffer from occasional bout of hive like welts that I get on my jawline.  These seem to appear after being in remission for a couple of months.  I have done so many things to improve my health and diet as far as supplements go and good cleansing habits but none of it has made any difference.  I also get clogged pores in my chin area that come in droves and are wedged in the corners and are very hard to remove and keep from coming back.  I limit my grains to things like quinoa, buckwheat and brown rice.  I dont eat dairy or sugar/sweets.  I do allow myself an occasional almond cookie that has about 3g of sugar in each cookie.  I have tried drinking ACV and applying topically to help the SD but its too harsh for my skin, even diluted with green tea or water.  Im cleansing with products from Garden of Wisdom and are all natural and very good.(www.gardenofwisdom.com) Im currently taking 20mg of Accutane once a week after  exhausting all the typical things derms give you and feel this might have made my SD worse.  I cannot rid this one area on the side of my lower jaw of these flat red spots.  Some days they are blaring red and almost look like broken caps and other days they are barley visible.  I get these strange flat red spots the size od a pin head on the lower cheeks as well and dont know how to treat.  You mentioned improper shedding of the skin cells and I have always felt my skin had so much dead skin on a daily basis that I need to go over my face with my nail to get the crud off.  This is not normal.  If I wash gently it doesnt remove this buildup and I dont even wear makeup!!  Just a bit of concealer in spots...I have been on the accutane since Oct 1 and my derm feels its not enough time.  I just dont know what to do..can you offer any advise to me?

Edited by wicky

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Did you see the section on abnormal cell proliferation and desquammation - shedding of skin cells? http://www.acne.org/...71#entry2580171 I use the terns hyperkeritinization/hyperproliferation for the collective term for all that's going on in cell formation, death and shedding.

Maybe you have several things going on. I did/do. I had extremely oily skin and all sorts of acne including cysts mostly on my jawline and neck but I could get them anywhere and turned out to be a reaction to a food. And later I developed rosacea and am prone to keratosis pilaris. All these conditions involve inflammation and most involve hyperkeratinization.

Are the jawline 'welts' cysts or nodules? Have you tried a methodical elimination diet to test for food intolerances? My jawline and neck cysts turned out to be a reaction to citrus, which I figured out by luck. How long have you avoided the grains? Have you tried avoiding other common allergen/food intolerance sources like dairy, eggs, peanuts, true nuts, soy?

Do you eat a lot of colorful fruits, veggies, herbs, teas, etc? Sources of beneficial nutrients like zinc, magnesium and sulfur?

What about stress? Sleep? Get sunlight and/or take vitamin D? Melatonin and vitamin D both affect normal cell proliferation.

The flaky skin is the SD, which is an inflammatory condition with the same root factors as acne. It just manifests itself in a different way. Following an anti-inflammatory diet which means figuring out what you are intolerant to is fundamental for this, not to mention for health in general.

Have you ever tried applying aloe vera gel topically? A long time ago, before my diet changes, I discovered that aloe vera worked as well as the prescription creams for my rosacea. And you can mix in other helpful ingredients. A little oil for moisture, a sulfur source for exfoliation like tumeric, MSM capsules or epsom salts, green tea to soothe redness. Topically applied glucosamine has also been found to help, but they tend to get it from shellfish, so careful if you are allergic. Topical zinc is also helpful and mineral makeups or sunscreens can be a source. Queen Helene's mint julep mask is another, but it might irritate you.

Sulfur is also anti-fungal and some say that SD is some yeast thing...

Edited by alternativista

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you touched on a lot of things that I have done or already tried..I tried aloe from the plant as well as the gel from the bottle and found it was good at helping with redness but it dried my skin out too much. I dont have much luck with oils on my skin so im not sure what I would mix it with. ive tried jojobad many many times and only adds to my congestion. i tried a lavender healing gel on my sebhorreic spots and it helped but didnt make them go away...I have tried the elimination diet and cannot figure out what was causing the welts or hives. The only thing I ever really suspected was Fish Oil of all things. I keep trying it and eventually stop because I think it might be the cause. i recently started taking a Nordic brand and since mid December have been getting the welts again. They are only on my lower jawline close to my neck. I stopped the oil on 12/31 and have not had one since..I know i need good omegas in my diet because i dont eat fish at all. I take chia seeds and sprinkle them on my oatmeal in the morning. i already take vitamin D3, Vitamin C, nicotinamide, and zinc. I also take a probiotic every day. I dont eat dairy or eggs either. You mentioned magnesium and MSM..Ive heard they can benefit the skin too. I just started accupuncture today to help because I cant seem to get a handle on what it is on my face and how to get it to respond to things. The red spots i've been getting on my cheeks are not pimple like so I'm not even sure they are rosacea related. I thank you for your input.

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This is a pretty good article on a site about the importance of magnesium. It's full of pretty good information on chronic inflammation, what it does to you, what causes it, and what nutrients help it. Except for the first paragraph which has a few problems. The first sentence says inflammation is an immune response, but the body has other responses to inflammation that don't involve the immune system. Just skip the first paragraph.

http://magnesiumforl...ystemic-stress/

Edited by alternativista

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Anti-aging tip from a Mercola newsletter on joint pain. Eggshell membranes contain elastin one of the things that keeps skin young and elastic. And growth factor B that supports tissue rejuvination. If you google eating eggshell membranes, you'll get plenty of tips.

When you hard boil eggs, save the shells and munch on them. They are full of everything you need to make bones and it's no more unpleasant than taking a pill. I've also seen tips on saving any shells, boiled or not, rinse and dry leaving the membrane intact of course, then consume. Those afraid of salmonella might not like that. There are also recipes involving soaking the shells in lemon juice to extract more calcium which should kill the salmonella. And of course, hard core raw egg eaters could just put the whole egg shell and all into their smoothie. Here's a forum with some people's tips: http://paleohacks.co...s#axzz1iiYwThSt

More:

  • Eggshell membrane: The eggshell membrane is the unique protective barrier between the egg white and the mineralized eggshell. The membrane contains elastin, a protein that supports cartilage health, and collagen, a fibrous protein that supports cartilage and connective tissue strength and elasticity.


    It also contains transforming growth factor-b, a protein that supports tissue rejuvenation, along with other amino acids and structural components that support the stability and flexibility of your joints by providing them with the building blocks needed to build cartilage.
  • Hyaluronic acid (HA): Hyaluronic acid is a key component of your cartilage, responsible for moving nutrients into your cells and moving waste out. One of its most important biological functions is the retention of water… second only to providing nutrients and removing waste from cells that lack a direct blood supply, such as cartilage cells.


    Unfortunately, the process of normal aging reduces the amount of HA synthesized by your body. Oral hyaluronic acid supplementation may effectively help most people cushion their joints after just 2 to 4 months.
  • Boswellia: Also known as boswellin or "Indian frankincense," this Indian herb is one treatment I've found to be particularly useful against arthritic inflammation and associated pain. With sustained use, boswellia may help maintain steady blood flow to your joints, supporting your joint tissues' ability to boost flexibility and strength.
  • Turmeric / curcumin: A study in the Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine found that taking turmeric extracts each day for six weeks was just as effective as ibuprofen for relieving knee osteoarthritis pain. This is most likely related to the anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin -- the pigment that gives the turmeric spice its yellow-orange color.

    • Animal-based omega-3 fats: These are excellent for arthritis because omega-3s are well known to help reduce inflammation. Look for a high-quality, animal-based source such as krill oil.
    • Astaxanthin: An anti-inflammatory antioxidant that affects a wide range of inflammation mediators, but in a gentler, less concentrated manner and without the negative side effects associated with steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. And it works for a high percentage of people. In one study, more than 80 percent of arthritis sufferers improved with astaxanthin.

    http://fitness.merco...20106_FNL_art_2

    And I have Doctor Oz on right now and he just claimed fenugreek tea boosted HGH production. The tea is made with a teaspoon of fenugreek seeds per cup. I googled it and most of the results in the first few pages are from body building sites. Here's a nice article, but it doesn't site any sources: http://www.muscleand...?ArticleID=5284

    Fenugreek seeds are also added when soaking legumes in Indian cooking. they are a source of one of the glyconutrients that bind up lectins. Mannose, I believe. Whatever. It's in the ZAG enzyme thread.

Edited by alternativista

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Just learned that endorphins have an imporant role in the immune system and boost production/function of the IgA antibodies that function in our body's mucosa. Really our first line of defense. And possibly boosts other types of antibodies.

What boosts endorphins? - things you enjoy! Laughter, music, affection, intimacy, brisk walk, dancing, sex... That sex improves your immune system has sparked many articles so searching on boosting IgA gets a lot of results.

A natural Circadian cycle with bright light exposure in the daytime and melatonin surge at night also boosts IgA

Added to the Good Things for the Immune system section.

Edited by alternativista

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(Hey! This thread has been pinned!)

Interesting post I just noticed in an old thread:

According to this study: http://www.obesityre...stract/15/4/879

overweight/obese people have lower IGF-1 levels than normal weight people. IGF-1 triggers hyper-keratinization of the pores, which is the first stage in the development of acne. Many people on this forum have notice that heavier people don't seem to get acne nearly so often ('m not saying they never do, there are always exceptions). Could this be why? Heavier weight = less IGF-1 = fewer blocked pores = less acne?

Because periodically someone comes along and creates a post about 'why fat people don't have acne' or takes a poll to see if we are all skinny. I was not skinny, btw. Not until I started eating right and I still have my problem areas where the fat just won't go away.

Edited by alternativista

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Interesting claim:

The numbers in the thyroid blood panel may be accurate but they do not tell you what the body is doing with the thyroid hormone so they are a waste of money. This was proven over 60 years ago by the late Dr. Broda Barnes, M.D., who wrote Hypothyroidism, the Unsuspected Illness. The only way to determine thyroid function is by the oral temperature in the morning after arising and again at noon or during daylight hours plus the daytime resting pulse, which should be 98.0 degrees F, 98.6-99 degrees F and 85 beats per minute, respectively. Fertile women should do this during menses to avoid the rise in temperature during ovulation. There are some exceptions to this that can be observed in blood tests but most hypothyroid people have what’s considered a “normal” thyroid panel. Many are misdiagnosed as being hyperthyroid because they are thin and have a low TSH (<1.0), when in fact, they are hypopituitary. Thyroid nutrition reversed both a sluggish thyroid and a sluggish pituitary gland.
from http://www.longnatur...rary2.asp?A=105 So your resting heart rate should be that high?

Very interesting! My normal body temperature is 97.8 and my heartbeat at rest, sitting down is around 65, Hmmmm I looked at hpyo online to find some of the symptoms matched me: can't tolerate cold, cold skin, fatigue, slowed down, dry skin, constipation (although I thought it was due to the refined foods and it could be, but I take fiber now and no problem. Still, could be a sign I guess). Another place had mentioned allergies. I looked at what could bring it on and it said that it can develop during or after pregnancy. Huh.. I noticed a lot of the symptoms after my son's boirth. I always told him he caused my allergy problems. lol And that is when i started getting more acne, too.

Thank you for posting!

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so, I started looking into IL1 and it's role in inflammatory responses and hyperkeratinization. I don't have time to finish but before I close all these tabs I'm making a couple of notes here:

1) It has a lot to do with the skin and the skin's role as a barrier to pathogens.

IL-1α is constitutively produced by epithelial cells. It is found in substantial amounts in normal human epidermis and is distributed in a 1:1 ratio between living epidermal cells and stratum corneum.[10][11][12] The constitutive production of large amounts of IL-1α precursor by healthy epidermal keratinocytes interfere with the important role of IL-1α in immune responses, assuming skin as a barrier, which prevents the entry of pathogenic microorganisms into the body.

The essential role of IL-1α in maintenance of skin barrier function, especially with increasing age,[13] is an additional explanation of IL-1α constitutive production in epidermis.

2) production is triggered during menses but is repressed by estradiol and progesterone so perhaps this is a big factor in breakouts coinciding with menstrual cycles and estrogen dominance as well as why some oral contraceptives help with acne:

3)

"Recent evidence suggests that inflammatory events may precede hyperkeratinization and also initiate and promote hyperkeratinization," Dr. Kim said. "Inflammatory events mediated by interleukin 1 (IL-1) precede hyperkeratinization. It's unclear what initiates this process, whether it's sebum or loss of barrier function. Clinical data support that anti-inflammatory therapy might be useful for all types of acne and for maintenance."

http://www.aadmeetingnews.org/highlight.aspx?id=2539&p=238

And a whole lot more studies and articles about how it is at the inception of

https://www.google.com/search?q=interleukin-1+and+hyperkeratinization&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&aq=t&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&client=firefox-a

Edited by alternativista

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Because I don't have any real support for Vitamin D's role in cell proliferation and differentiation:

From wikipedia, who doesn't cite specifics either. Look through the references to find support. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitamin_D

Vitamin D is carried in the bloodstream to the liver, where it is converted into the prohormone calcidiol. Circulating calcidiol may then be converted into calcitriol, the biologically active form of vitamin D, either in the kidneys or by monocyte-macrophages in the immune system. When synthesized by monocyte-macrophages, calcitriol acts locally as a cytokine, defending the body against microbial invaders.[102] Following the final converting step in the kidney, calcitriol (the physiologically active form of vitamin D) is released into the circulation. By binding to vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP), a carrier protein in the plasma, calcitriol is transported to various target organs.[88]

Calcitriol mediates its biological effects by binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR), which is principally located in the nuclei of target cells.[88] The binding of calcitriol to the VDR allows the VDR to act as a transcription factor that modulates the gene expression of transport proteins (such as TRPV6 and calbindin), which are involved in calcium absorption in the intestine.[103]

The vitamin D receptor belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily of steroid/thyroid hormone receptors, and VDRs are expressed by cells in most organs, including the brain, heart, skin, gonads, prostate, and breast. VDR activation in the intestine, bone, kidney, and parathyroid gland cells leads to the maintenance of calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood (with the assistance of parathyroid hormone and calcitonin) and to the maintenance of bone content.[65]

Vitamin D increases expression of the tyrosine hydroxylase gene in adrenal medullary cells. It also is involved in the biosynthesis of neurotrophic factors, synthesis of nitric oxide synthase, and increased glutathione levels.[104]

The VDR is known to be involved in cell proliferation and differentiation. Vitamin D also affects the immune system, and VDRs are expressed in several white blood cells, including monocytes and activated T and B cells.[105]

Apart from VDR activation, various alternative mechanisms of action are known. An important one of these is its role as a natural inhibitor of signal transduction byhedgehog (a hormone involved in morphogenesis).[106][107]

One of the most important roles of vitamin D is to maintain skeletal calcium balance by promoting calcium absorption in the intestines, promoting bone resorption by increasing osteoclast number, maintaining calcium and phosphate levels for bone formation, and allowing proper functioning of parathyroid hormone to maintain serum calcium levels. Vitamin D deficiency can result in lower bone mineral density and an increased risk of reduced bone density (osteoporosis) or bone fracture because a lack of vitamin D alters mineral metabolism in the body.[108] Thus, although it may initially appear paradoxical, vitamin D is critical for proper bone formation despite its role as a potent stimulator of bone resorption.[109]

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