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Green_Vegetable_Man

Artificial skin for replacement of scarred face skin

Raw Materials

The raw materials needed for the production of artificial skin fall into two categories: the biological components and the necessary laboratory equipment. Most of the donated skin tissue comes from neonatal foreskins removed during circumcision. One foreskin can yield enough cells to make four acres of grafting material. Fibroblasts are separated from the dermal layer of the donated tissue. The fibroblasts are quarantined while they are tested for viruses and other infectious pathogens such as HIV, Hepatitis B and C, and Mycoplasma. The mother's medical history is recorded. The fibroblasts are stored in glass vials and frozen in liquid nitrogen at -94°F (-70°C). Vials are kept frozen until the fibroblasts are needed to grow cultures. In the collagen method, keratinocytes are also extracted from the foreskin, tested, and frozen. If the fibroblasts are to be grown on mesh scaffolding, a polymer is created by combining molecules of lactic acid and glycolic acid, the same elements used to make dissolving sutures. The compound undergoes a chemical reaction resulting in a larger molecule that consists of repeating structural units. In the collagen method, a small amount of bovine collagen is extracted from the extensor tendon of young calves. The collagen is mixed with an acidic nutrient, and stored in a refrigerator at 39.2°F (4°C). Laboratory equipment includes glass vials, tubing, roller bottles, grafting cartridges, molds, and freezers.

The Manufacturing Process

The manufacturing process is deceptively simple. Its main function is to trick the extracted fibroblasts into believing that they are in the human body so that they communicate with each other in the natural way to create new skin.

1. Mesh scaffolding method

Fibroblasts are thawed and expanded. The fibroblasts are transferred from the vials into roller bottles, which resemble liter soda bottles. The bottles are rotated on their sides for three to four weeks. The rolling action allows the circulation of oxygen, essential to the growth process.

2. Cells are transferred to a culture system. The cells are removed from the roller bottles, combined with a nutrient-rich media and flowed through tubes into thin, cassette-like bioreactors housing the biodegradable mesh scaffolding and sterilized with e-beam radiation. As the cells flow into the cassettes, they adhere to the mesh and begin to grow. The cells are flowed back and forth for three to four weeks. Each day, leftover cells suspension is removed and fresh nutrient is added. Oxygen, pH, nutrient flow and temperature are controlled by the culture system. As the new cells create a layer of dermal skin, the polymer disintegrates.

3. Growth cycle completed. When cell growth on the mesh is completed, the tissue is rinsed with more nutrient-rich media. A cryoprotectant is added. Cassettes are stored individually, labeled, and frozen.

4. Collagen method

Cells are transferred to a culture system. A small amount of the cold collagen and nutrient media, approximately 1–2% of the combined solution, is added to the fibroblasts. The mixture is dispensed into molds and allowed to come to room temperature. As the collagen warms, it gels, trapping the fibroblasts and generating the growth of new skin cells. 5Keratinocytes added. Two weeks after the collagen is added to the fibroblasts, the extracted keratinocytes are thawed and seeded onto the new dermal skin. They are allowed to grow for several days and then exposed to air, inducing the keratinocytes to form epidermal layers. 6Growth cycle completed. The new skin is stored in sterile containers until needed.

The Future

The medical profession is using artificial skin technology to pioneer organ reconstruction. It is hoped that this so-called engineered structural tissue will, for example, someday replace plastic and metal prostheses currently used to replace damaged joints and bones. Ears and noses will be reconstructed by seeding cartilage cells on polymer mesh. The regeneration of breast and urethral tissues is currently under study in the laboratory. Through this technology, it is possible that one day, livers, kidneys, and even hearts, will be grown from human tissues.

Where to Learn More

Periodicals

Langer, Robert, and Joseph P. Vacanti. "Artificial Organs." Scientific American (September 1995): 130-133.

Langer, Robert, and Joseph P. Vacanti. "Tissue Engineering." Science (14 May 1993): 920-921.

McCarthy, Michael. "Bio-engineered Tissues Move Towards the Clinic." The Lancet (17 August 1996): 466.

Rundle, Rhonda L. "Cells 'Tricked' To Make Skin For Burn Cases." The Wall Street Journal (17 March 1994).

http://www.gale-edit.com/products/volumes/skin.htm

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Useless post. Full of jargon.

Although I'm sure some half-wit 'round here is going to be shitting themselves at what they perceive as genius.

Hey post some more links about untrue paranormal tabloid stuff that way I can at least get a laugh out of it.

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Useless post. Full of jargon.

Although I'm sure some half-wit 'round here is going to be shitting themselves at what they perceive as genius.

Hey post some more links about untrue paranormal tabloid stuff that way I can at least get a laugh out of it.

When your skin rots and your testicles shrivel casenickles you will think of this article :D

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Useless post. Full of jargon.

Although I'm sure some half-wit 'round here is going to be shitting themselves at what they perceive as genius.

Hey post some more links about untrue paranormal tabloid stuff that way I can at least get a laugh out of it.

When your skin rots and your testicles shrivel casenickles you will think of this article :D

ROFL. Since this will happen when I'm dead I don't think I'll be around to remember much

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Useless post. Full of jargon.

Although I'm sure some half-wit 'round here is going to be shitting themselves at what they perceive as genius.

Hey post some more links about untrue paranormal tabloid stuff that way I can at least get a laugh out of it.

When your skin rots and your testicles shrivel casenickles you will think of this article :D

The quality of your threads keeps hitting new lows. You are really doing a fantastic job at finding the most useless, worthless, garbage on the internet and showing it as what you have accomplished day to day. Case closed.

:ninja:

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Useless post. Full of jargon.

Although I'm sure some half-wit 'round here is going to be shitting themselves at what they perceive as genius.

Hey post some more links about untrue paranormal tabloid stuff that way I can at least get a laugh out of it.

When your skin rots and your testicles shrivel casenickles you will think of this article :D

The quality of your threads keeps hitting new lows. You are really doing a fantastic job at finding the most useless, worthless, garbage on the internet and showing it as what you have accomplished day to day. Case closed.

:ninja:

Not closed. I post garbage to attract reactionary comments from select morons like you. :D

Useless post. Full of jargon.

Although I'm sure some half-wit 'round here is going to be shitting themselves at what they perceive as genius.

Hey post some more links about untrue paranormal tabloid stuff that way I can at least get a laugh out of it.

When your skin rots and your testicles shrivel casenickles you will think of this article :D

ROFL. Since this will happen when I'm dead I don't think I'll be around to remember much

Do you know that rats have more intelligence than you?

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no need to bag on anyone who takes time to even consider contributing any, useful or not, information to this forum no? a lot might not like certains topics but atleast respect them. unless...its something morally and humanly wrong, but stuff like this...w/e y'know?

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