http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14728695 Abstract Cleanser technology has come a long way from merely cleansing to providing mildness and moisturizing benefits as well. It is known that harsh surfactants in cleansers can cause damage to skin proteins and lipids, leading to after-wash tightness, dryness, barrier damage, irritation, and even itch. In order for cleansers to provide skin-care benefits, they first must minimize surfactant damage to skin proteins and lipids. Secondly, they must deposit and deliver beneficial agents such as occlusives, skin lipids, and humectants under wash conditions to improve skin hydration, as well as mechanical and visual properties. While all surfactants tend to interact to some degree with lipids, their interaction with proteins can vary significantly, depending upon the nature of their functional head group. In vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo studies have shown that surfactants that cause significant skin irritation interact strongly with skin proteins. Based on this understanding, several surfactants and surfactant mixtures have been identified as "less irritating" mild surfactants because of their diminished interactions with skin proteins. Surfactants that interact minimally with both skin lipids and proteins are especially mild. Another factor that can aggravate surfactant-induced dryness and irritation is the pH of the cleanser. The present authors' recent studies demonstrate that high pH (pH 10) solutions, even in the absence of surfactants, can increase stratum corneum (SC) swelling and alter lipid rigidity, thereby suggesting that cleansers with neutral or acidic pH, close to SC-normal pH 5.5, may be potentially less damaging to the skin. Mildness enhancers and moisturizing agents such as lipids, occlusives, and humectants minimize damaging interactions between surfactants, and skin proteins and lipids, and thereby, reduce skin damage. In addition, these agents play an ameliorative role, replenishing the skin lipids lost during the wash period. The present review discusses the benefits of such agents and their respective roles in improving the overall health of the skin barrier.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18494892/ Abstract Skin-cleansing compositions based on alkyl carboxylates (soaps) have a higher irritation potential than those based on syndet surfactants such as alkyl isethionates or alkyl ether sulphates. Contributing factors include inherent differences in the irritation potential of soaps and syndet surfactants, pH-induced changes in surfactant solution chemistry, and the direct effects of pH on the physical properties of the stratum corneum (SC). Past work has not directly addressed the effect of solution pH on the SC itself and its potential role in cleanser-induced skin irritation. In the current work, alterations to SC properties induced by buffered pH solutions and two strongly ionizable surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulphate and sodium lauryl ether sulphate, at different pH values are measured. By utilizing optical coherence tomography (OCT) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy we have directly measured physical changes in SC proteins and lipids. Our results indicate that SC swelling, which reflects alterations to SC structural proteins, is increased significantly at pH 10, compared to pH 4 and 6.5. The transition temperature (T(m)) of SC lipids is found to increase at pH 10, compared to pH 4 and 6.5, suggesting a more rigid SC lipid matrix. Surfactants cause a further increase in swelling and lipid rigidity. Some aspects of what these results mean for SC physical properties as well as their implications to potential mechanisms of surfactant-induced skin irritation are discussed. PMID: 18494892 [PubMed]
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16864974/ Abstract The 'acid mantle' of the stratum corneum seems to be important for both permeability barrier formation and cutaneous antimicrobial defense. However, the origin of the acidic pH, measurable on the skin surface, remains conjectural. Passive and active influencing factors have been proposed, e.g. eccrine and sebaceous secretions as well as proton pumps. In recent years, numerous investigations have been published focusing on the changes in the pH of the deeper layers of the stratum corneum, as well as on the influence of physiological and pathological factors. The pH of the skin follows a sharp gradient across the stratum corneum, which is suspected to be important in controlling enzymatic activities and skin renewal. The skin pH is affected by a great number of endogenous factors, e.g. skin moisture, sweat, sebum, anatomic site, genetic predisposition and age. In addition, exogenous factors like detergents, application of cosmetic products, occlusive dressings as well as topical antibiotics may influence the skin pH. Changes in the pH are reported to play a role in the pathogenesis of skin diseases like irritant contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, ichthyosis, acne vulgaris and Candida albicans infections. Therefore, the use of skin cleansing agents, especially synthetic detergents with a pH of about 5.5, may be of relevance in the prevention and treatment of those skin diseases. PMID: 16864974 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2995530/ The pH of the skin’s surface has been reported to be in the range of 5.4 to 5.9 and is important in the maintenance of skin barrier function and defense against infection and disease . The skin also has an excellent buffering capacity against large changes in pH. Albeit, external factors such as washing and applying solutions, drugs and cosmetics to the surface of the skin can raise its surface pH and can likewise increase or induce skin irritation. For example, alkaline solutions of pH 9 and above applied to the skin have been reported to cause skin irritation. In the same study, aqueous solutions of pH 5 and 7 did not cause irritation when applied to the skin . In another study, Ananthapadmanabhan et al. showed that a solution at pH 10 when applied to the skin, compared with a pH of 4 or 6.5, increased the transition temperature of stratum corneum lipids . Observed adverse effects were swelling of the stratum corneum and disruption of the skin barrier function, as indicated by an increase in transepidermal water loss. Therefore, to avoid skin irritation it is very important to buffer formulations applied to the skin as close to the skin’s surface pH as possible. Some universal pharmaceutical solvents are irritating to the skin and therefore cannot be used in topical preparations. Prior to in vivo investigation, these solvents should be replaced by alternative solvents with acceptable irritation and safety profiles. Topical solvents deemed to be safe for use include isopropyl alcohol, propylene glycol, isopropyl myristate and polyethylene glycols to a certain percentage (up to 60% used in marketed products) .
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3168246/ It is difficult for rosacea patients to discern which products and ingredients will be beneficial to their skin and which products will lead to an exacerbation of the signs and symptoms of rosacea. In this paper, the authors provide a brief overview of rosacea, its pathogenesis, signs and symptoms, and the management of the two major rosacea subtypes—erythematotelangiectatic rosacea and papular pustular rosacea. Reviewed in greater detail are the common ingredients used in over-the-counter cleansers and moisturizers with discussion of how these ingredients potentially benefit or harm the skin of patients with rosacea. Clinical studies investigating the benefits of using certain over-the-counter cleansers and moisturizers in patients with erythematotelangiectatic rosacea and papular pustular rosacea with or without topical prescription therapy are also reviewed. The specific formulas used in the clinical studies include a sensitive skin synthetic detergent bar, a nonalkaline cleanser and moisturizer, polyhydroxy acid containing cleanser and moisturizer, and a ceramide-based cleanser and moisturizer formulated in a multivesicular emulsion. Based on review of available data, the authors conclude that the use of mild over-the-counter cleansers and moisturizers is beneficial for patients with erythematotelangiectatic rosacea and papular pustular rosacea. The properties of over-the-counter cleansers and moisturizers that contribute to their mildness include an acidic-neutral pH to minimize the flux in skin pH; surfactants or emulsifiers that will not strip the skin of its moisture or strip the lipids and proteins of the stratum corneum; moisturizing ingredients such as emollients, humectants, and occlusives; and formulas without potential irritants and allergens. The most consistent clinical benefits demonstrated in the reviewed studies were a subjectively perceived improvement in subjective symptoms of dryness and irritation as well as an objective improvement in dryness. ============ A common myth among the general public is that all over-the-counter (OTC) cleansers and moisturizers are created equal. This, however, is not the case. Many healthcare providers overlook the importance of OTC cleansers and moisturizers in the management of skin disease and may not consider their components to be actively involved in producing therapeutic benefit. Yet, use of OTC cleansers and moisturizers can potentially have multiple beneficial or deleterious effects on the skin and can induce changes in the superficial and deep layers of the epidermis.1 It is the specific ingredients in the formula and the properties of the formulation as a whole that determine whether the cleanser or moisturizer is truly a mild product and if the product will impact the skin, especially the integrity and function of the stratum corneum (SC), in a positive or negative manner.2 ============== Importance of a mild OTC cleanser for rosacea patients. The ideal cleanser would function by removing dirt, oil, environmental pollutants, and harmful bacteria from skin without disrupting or removing the beneficial lipids, proteins, and normal flora that contribute to the integrity, function, and health of normal skin. However, this is often not the case. Strong OTC cleansers that are efficient at removing dirt, oil, and bacteria cannot distinguish between good and bad lipids, proteins, or bacteria. Therefore, strong cleansers that provide an efficient skin cleaning are also, in essence, damaging the SC by damaging or stripping some of its essential components, such as lipids, proteins, and natural moisturizing factor (NMF).14 Because ETR and PPR patients already have a compromised SC permeability barrier and sensitive skin, it is recommended that rosacea patients use mild OTC cleansers that do not exacerbate their skin disease. Recognition of the importance of mild cleansers in the management of rosacea and other sensitive skin diseases has spurred the development of mild therapeutic cleansers with the sole purpose of gently cleansing the skin without stripping the skin of its functional components. OTC cleansers, their ingredients, and what they do to the stratum corneum. There are four general categories of skin cleansing agents including soaps, synthetic detergent (syndet) bars and liquid cleansers, combination bar (combar) antimicrobials, and lipid-free liquid cleansers. True soap. True soap (soap) is created through a process called saponification, which is the chemical reaction that occurs when a fat, such as tallow (beef fat), and an alkali, such as lye, are combined to create long chain fatty acid alkali salts. The typical pH of a true soap is 9 to 10.15 Soaps are strong OTC cleansers that do an excellent job of removing skin sebum and debris. Yet, in the process, soaps can remove beneficial intercellular lipids and damage SC proteins. Removing these beneficial lipids and proteins impairs the SC as evidenced by an increase in TEWL, dehydration, altered desquamation, and increased penetration of topically applied substances, therefore increasing skin sensitivity and irritation in rosacea patients.15 Synthetic detergent (syndet) cleansers. Syndet bars are synthetic detergent-based cleansers that contain less than 10 percent of soap and typically have a more neutral/acidic pH (5.5–7) similar to the pH of normal skin.15,16 Syndet bars in general are designed to provide an effective skin cleaning with minimal stripping of essential SC lipids and proteins, ultimately making these types of cleansing bars less irritating and drying than the traditional soap bars. Syndet liquid cleansers are also available. In an experiment done on ex-vivo arm skin, the ultrastructural skin changes were monitored after washing with a soap and mild syndet bar using a combination of measurements including TEWL, environmental scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy.17,18 The results of this study clearly demonstrated changes to the skin's ultrastructure after multiple washes with the soap bar. Environmental electron microscopy revealed changes in the skin surface morphology including a significant uplifting of cells and increase in surface roughness after washing with the soap. In addition, transmission electron microscopy revealed significant damage to both lipid and protein regions after washing with the soap bar. In contrast, under the same conditions, the syndet-washed skin showed well-preserved surface morphology and well-preserved lipid and protein regions. The study also demonstrated a correlation between high TEWL and damage to SC ultrastructure after use of the soap bar, clearly illustrating the potential for soap to damage the SC and the mildness of the syndet bar in comparison.17,18 Combination bars (combars). Combars are antibacterial soap bars that contain a combination of true soap surfactants and syndet bar surfactants with an added antibacterial agent. Although the antibacterial agents in combars are beneficial for reducing harmful bacteria, they may also eradicate the normal flora of the skin and can cause an increase in skin dryness and irritation.19 Since patients with rosacea may already have an imbalance of skin flora and problems with skin dryness and sensitivity,8 in general, combars are not ideal for patients with rosacea. Lipid-free liquid cleansers. Lipid-free liquid cleansers are very mild as they clean without soap formation and are designed to leave behind a thin moisturizing film on the skin.19 Evidence that supports the use of several lipid-free cleansers in rosacea patients will be presented in the next sections of this paper. Given the sensitive nature of ETR and PPR skin, lipid-free cleansers and syndet cleansers are well suited for rosacea patients. However, within the lipid-free cleanser and syndet bar subtypes there are several other properties of these cleansers that determine their mildness. These properties include the type of surfactant used in the cleanser, the extent of surfactant interaction with skin proteins and lipids, the pH of the cleanser, and the extent of skin hydration or dehydration caused by cleansing.20–22 Surfactants. Surfactants are the principle ingredients in cleansers responsible for removing oil and debris from the skin surface. The extent to which a surfactant is able to “clean” the skin is relative to its critical micelle concentration (CMC). The CMC is a measure of a surfactant's efficacy in solubilizing dirt and oil on the skin and dispersing them into solution. The lower the CMC, the higher the efficacy of the surfactant and the lower the amount needed in the cleanser formula. However, a high cleansing efficacy (or a low CMC) usually correlates with an increased number of deleterious effects on the SC integrity and function.15 Surfactants are subdivided into the following four main groups based on their molecular charge or lack of molecular charge: anionic, cationic, amphoteric, and nonionic.21–24 According to Ananthapadmanabhan et al15 and Effendy et al,24 the order of surfactant potential for SC alteration and skin irritation is cationic=anionic>amphoteric>nonionic. However, it cannot be generalized that all cationic and anionic surfactants are the most irritating group of surfactants to the skin because the specific surfactant used, in addition to its molecular charge, has a major effect on irritant potential. For example, when comparing the irritation potential and penetration of two anionic surfactants, sodium lauryl sulfate and sodium cocoyl isethionate, sodium lauryl sulfate can cause significant skin irritation and penetration while sodium cocoyl isethionate has shown excellent skin compatibility.21,25 Despite the potential for some anionic surfactants to irritate the skin and diminish skin health, they are still the primary surfactants used today, even in mild cleanser formulations, due to their excellent foaming and lathering characteristics. Cationic surfactants, such as benzalkonium chloride, can have high irritant and cytotoxic effects on the skin.24 Therefore cationic surfactants are generally used in antimicrobial washes due to their excellent antimicrobial properties.24 To minimize the irritation potential of anionic and cationic surfactants in a cleansing formula, these surfactants can be used in small amounts and can be combined with other amphoteric and nonionic surfactants to minimize their irritation potential and negative effects on the stratum corneum.15,24,26 For example, sodium laureth sulfate, an anionic surfactant that is a close relative to sodium lauryl sulfate, is often used in combination with the amphoteric surfactant cocamidopropylbetaine. It is assumed that the use of the anionic and amphoteric surfactants results in a milder cleansing formula with a decreased anionic surfactant concentration, decreased skin irritation, and decreased interaction with skin proteins and lipids.15,24 Surfactants and skin proteins. Surfactants that interact with SC proteins are deleterious to overall skin health because of their ability to disrupt and damage the proteins of the SC. This insult to the SC proteins can result in changes in SC integrity leading to cutaneous irritation, inflammation, and dessication, all of which can ultimately lead to visible changes associated with dryness and irritation. It is thought that interaction of the charged (polar) heads of the surfactants with the charged proteins of the SC facilitates the penetration of surfactants as well as other cleanser ingredients into the deeper skin layers. The deeper penetration of these ingredients can cause chemical irritation or an inflammatory biochemical response in healthy skin, or in the case of rosacea patients, exacerbate inflammation and irritation that may already be present depending on the current magnitude of underlying rosacea at that time.27–29 However, for a surfactant with a given chain length, the larger the head group size, the lower the tendency to cause protein swelling and subsequent damage. This may be one of the reasons why sodium cocoyl isethionate, with its larger head group, is milder than sodium lauryl sulfate as discussed above.15,30 In addition, the interaction of the charged head of the surfactant with the skin proteins also reduces the ability of these proteins to bind and hold water, allowing increased evaporation and resultant SC dehydration.27–29,31 In a study by Ananthapadmanabhan,15 the interaction of skin proteins with a soap, syndet bar, and lipid-free cleanser were compared using infrared spectroscopy. In this study, the true soap caused the most interaction and change in the SC protein structure, therefore supporting the idea that soaps are capable of producing the greatest magnitude of SC damage. The clinical relevance that soaps can produce greater cutaneous desiccation, lessened innate ability for SC repair, and increased skin drying may all easily progress to augmented potential to produce signs and symptoms of cutaneous irritation. In patients with ETR and PPR, a group already affected inherently with impairment of the SC permeability barrier, these negative effects produced by soaps and poorly formulated skin cleansers are further magnified. Surfactants and skin lipids. The interaction of surfactants with skin lipids have also been studied extensively31–34 However, the mechanism by which surfactants interact with lipids and cause SC permeability barrier disruption remains somewhat elusive. It has been suggested that surfactants either solubilize SC lipids into micelles and thereby cause subsequent SC delipidation, or that the incorporation of surfactants, especially charged surfactants, into SC lipid bilayer results in bilayer destabilization and increased SC permeability33,35–37 Although it has been hypothesized that charged anionic surfactants have a greater effect on the lipid bilayer than nonionic surfactants, a greater skin defatting effect may actually occur with the use of nonionic surfactants compared to anionic surfactants. This consideration stems from the fact that nonionic surfactants have a greater tendency to dissolve stearic acid than do anionic surfactants.15 Also, transmission electron microscopic studies have shown that nonionic-surfactant-based cleansers alter the lipid region to a greater extent than do mild cleansing bars with sodium cocoyl isethionate (an anionic surfactant).17,18 Mendelsohn and Moore used infrared spectroscopy to compare the perturbation of the lipid layers in the SC after the use of a true soap, syndet bar, or water alone (as the control).38,39 The results showed significant disruption of the lipid layer after the use of a soap as compared to the syndet bar and water alone. In comparing the effects of the syndet bar versus the control (water alone), analysis showed no discernable difference in lipid chain fluidity or rotational freedom. However, further analysis of the syndet bar did show a significant decrease in the cooperativity of the lipid bilayer after syndet bar use indicating a significant alteration in lipid organization and a resultant decrease in SC cohesion. Such changes can be a result of alterations in SC lipid composition either through the removal of endogenous lipid fractions or subfractions or the incorporation of surfactant molecules into the SC lipid layer. Overall, these results further support the common belief that true soaps impart the greatest magnitude of deleterious effects on SC integrity, followed by syndet bars and water, respectively. Stratum corneum pH. Maintaining SC pH in an acid range of 4 to 6 is important for the overall health, integrity, and function of the SC, as discussed in a previous paper by Levin et al.40 Due to their inherent alkaline pH, soaps have the potential to change the pH of skin and therefore are not ideal for support of the permeability barrier of the SC. It is important to emphasize that a single or occasional use of an alkaline soap is not likely to significantly affect skin pH given the innate buffering capacity of skin.40 However, Fluhr et al41 have demonstrated that small and sustained pH increases, such as those caused by the daily use of soaps, induces changes in skin pH and adversely influences the SC barrier repair mechanism.41 Syndet bars and lipid-free cleansers are generally formulated to have a neutral or slightly acidic pH to ensure skin compatibility, decrease the alkaline flux of skin pH, and decrease the compromise of SC barrier function caused by alkaline pH alterations. Deposition characteristics of some cleanser formulations. An additional benefit of some syndet bars, syndet liquid cleansers, and lipid-free cleansers is that they can be designed to deposit beneficial ingredients onto the skin even with short contact during cleansing and after rinsing. However, compared to bar technology, advances in liquid cleansing technology allow more efficient cutaneous deposition of beneficial agents, such as lipids.15 These cleansers, in essence, are using the same technology that is used in shampoos to deposit conditioning agents onto the hair. Some of the liquid cleansers currently available contain vegetable oils such as sunflower or soybean oil, occlusives such as petrolatum, humectants such as glycerol, and other ingredients such as ceramides and cholesterol that have beneficial effects on the skin. Cleanser formulations that allow for true deposition of specific major ingredients produce greater benefit and are less likely to damage the SC. Deposition technology with proper cleanser formulation, including with liquid cleansers, has the potential to minimize surfactant-mediated depletion of skin lipids, reduce the visible signs of dryness after cleansing, and assist in mitigating increases in TEWL. Today, in the OTC cleanser market, we now see some specific wash-off systems offering novel combinations of ingredients that can be deposited on the skin by cleansers, leading to a range of skin care claims that are supported by cogent scientific evidence.15 ============== Putting it all together, it becomes clear that certain cleansers can disrupt the health of the SC more than others. Using a cleanser that may truly be more effective at removing surface oils and debris, such as a true soap or a cleanser with low CMC surfactants, on the sensitive skin of a patient with ETR or PPR, will likely cause exacerbation of their underlying SC impairment and can trigger signs and symptoms. Patients with ETR or PPR who use well-formulated, mild cleansing agents such as syndet cleansers and lipid-free cleansers with a neutral to slightly acidic pH may not only avoid exacerbation of their skin disorder, but also may note adjunctive benefit in combination with therapies being used to treat their rosacea.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19467032 Abstract The pH of the healthy skin is 5.5 and maintained by many regulatory mechanisms. The pH of the skin care product we use on a daily basis can have an influence on the skin properties. To investigate how the physical properties of skin change after the alkaline or acidic pH of the skin care products are applied on the skin for a long term, we adjusted the pH of the skin care products to 3, 5 and 8 (A, B, C), with glycolic acid and triethanolamine. For 5 weeks the skin care products were applied on 20 healthy subjects' ventral forearm and the skin physical properties were measured. After 5 weeks, skin responses to the external stress of 1% (w/v) SLS (sodium lauryl sulphate) irritation and erythema by UV were measured. Skin colour and skin UV response were not altered by the pH. However, on the C-applied site (pH 8) the transepidermal water loss of stratum corneum (SC) increased significantly, the water content increased and desquamation decreased, respectively, and the SLS significantly impaired the skin barrier in comparison with other sites. The alkaline skin care product impaired the skin barrier after repeated application over 5-week period and the skin barrier was disrupted severely by 1% SLS exposure because SC was already impaired by alkaline pH and sensitive to external stress. This suggests that the pH of daily skin care products is very important for skin barrier homeostasis. PMID: 19467032 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Going to put my info here here so I can keep track of it, and if anyone wants to check it out, maybe it will benefit you when using her products yourself. So, I've been using Dianna Yvonne's 2% SA Exfol Serum for a year or so. I've gone through 2 bottles. As I neared the end of my second bottle, I thought about reordering but, I didn't think it was making much difference. I knew it was working somewhat because 1) my lips would dry out from the SA migrating to them and 2) my skin seemed better using it than not. BUT, I was still breaking out and I was a bit upset that when I tested the product with a pH strip, it was not nearly as low as advertised on the site. I had also started using more vitamins. After reading that people with acne have lower Vit E levels and antioxidant levels, etc I bought a nice well rounded multi vit, a broad spectrum antioxidant, a Vit E complex (I didn't realize there were so many Vit E components lol). I also had been taking Vit D3 for seasonal depression but only 2,000 units a day. It didn;t seem to ward off teh blues as much as I would like, so I upped it to 4,000 a day. Then I read that our bodies produce 10,000 units a day from sun exposure (and a friend of mine who makes no Vit D whatsoever even with sun was prescribed 10,000 units a day) I decided I would double my intake again to 8,000 units. I have seen no ill side effects. My mood is better and I noticed my skin was not as oily. Vit D3 helps with hormones, too, so perhaos that is why. Anyhow, My skin seemed to do better on this additions, but I would still get some spots. Well, in march I had some larger spots and I was probably a little too aggressive, causing dryness and just a big mess. Lots of moisturizer and gentle skin care helped them heal. In April I got spots again and I just had it. lol Ridiculous! Truthfully, I don;t know how to handle more "normal" skin. I'm used to greasy skin 24/7, so yeah..I didn't change my routne to suit my new less oily face. *sigh* I don't use a moisturizer regularly because I'm normally an oil slick. So, i was just drying out my skin without taking it's new property in consideration. Ok, so on to Paula's Choice. I decided to buy some samples because they come highly rated. I was especially interested in the 2% SA stuff as maybe a replacement for the Dianna Yvonne. Online the website said it was at proper pH to be effective, etc. May 18, 2014 I started using the 2% lotion and neutrogena 2.5% BP. I chose many samples, and decided to try the lotion despite me having previosu oily skin. I really like the lotion. It doesn't make me greasy/oily AND it seems hydrating enough I don't need to put a moisturizer on top. I'm also using my Neutrogen ultra gentle foaming face wash. May 21, 2014 Been using the above for a few days. Today I went to church so I washed my face, used hydralight toner plus the hydralight moisturizer and put on my makeup. Wow--not oily and my makeup looked great. May 23, been using the hydralight toner and moisturizer in conjunction with the SA lotion. Works great. This morning i washed, used hydralight toner, then topped with the BHA lotion and spot treated with nutrogena's 2.5 BP. Before out dinner out, I washed, used the clear regular strength 2%BHA toner then the hydralight moisturizer. Really like all these products so far. Glad they work well together! May 28, 2014 So, my monthly friend showed up today. BAH. I ran out of my BHA lotion samples. So, trying out the 2% BHA liquid (which on site says it is the exact same as the clear BHA toner extra strength). Seems ok. A little oily like I read in reviews but putting on before bed. May 29 Put the BHA liquid on this morning and night May 30-June 1 SUCKS. I have painful spots. maybe cysts. http:////dn4iqhjvtt39e.cloudfront.net/messageboard//public/style_emoticons/default/smile.png It's ben a week off the liquid. I decided to try it again. Not on my whole face, though! Too scared! But i did ut it on the stubborn blackheads on my nose (I don't normally get spots there) and then dabbed a tiny bit on each of the remaining cysts that haven't come to the surface yet. We'll see what happens! I also started adding a drop of ACV to my neutrogena cleanser to bring the pH down. It is at a 7. http:////dn4iqhjvtt39e.cloudfront.net/messageboard//public/style_emoticons/default/sad.png Needs to be closer to 5. Thought about trying PC, but many of hers has sodium laureth sulfate and I;m not a fan. However, the earth sourced (or whatever. it's in a green bottle and supposed to be natural) looks gentle enough and hopefully non drying. I think all of hers are at a pH of 5 or 5.5 June 9 Well nothing new popped up. Going to repeat it today. But only once per day. If all goes well, then I'm going to think it was either exfoliating too quickly or I was using too often and my skin couldn't deal with the irritation.(maybe that is what other reviewers expereinced, too) If I work up the courage to try it full face, and don't get a reaction like last time I think I will use this once or twice a week for a deep cleaning of pores. But, I'll stick with the regular strength liquid or the lotion (or maybe even the gel) for an every day maintenence. I haven't notice much difference in my red marks, though. I have a sample of the 10% glycolic acid but waiting to use that when my skin has calmed and cleared more. I'd also like to try out the reinol (I have used the .3% skinceuticals in the past and liked it). PC now has a new 1% formula! It is comparable to a.025% trenitoin. Going to also try a sample of Paula's 2.5% BP..I'm almost out of my neutrogena and maybe hers will work even better! Below are some images from the last 3 weeks. In each collage, the photos are in order from left to right: End of 1st week, End of 2nd week, End of 3rd week They are not miraculous, but some had gone and just left some red marking. The others are not as inflamed. I know it will take a while, so I'll keep on going, as long as it doesn't cause more problems than it solves. HA! But, so far, the only terrible reaction was the BHA liquid, so I think that' a positive sign. I think should make a note that the past few days i ate JUNK--as in pizza and sweets. Usually I stay away from processed foods because it seems they make me break out. I only eat them every now and again. However, it seems since I started my vitamins and such, I can be a little freer in my choices. Antioxidants help deal with stress to the body, so I'm wondering if now my body can cope interanlly with the onslaught of food irritations. lol (I'm not talkingn about gluten intolerance or allergies, etc). But white flour, sugar, etc in general causes systemic inflammation. Anyhow, I'm not emotionally stressed either, so I think my body has a very fine balance it maintains and if either one gets too high..well it can't cope. If I am stressed out and then eat bad food..it can't deal with both factors. Just some thoughts I've been kicking around lately as an explanation. Updated photos: June 23, 2014 6 weeks using PC 2% BHA products--4 weeks of consistent 2%BHA Clear toner Big bumps gone. Pores still cleaning out and lesions that occur are smaller. Red marks still hanging on. Updated photos: June 28, 2014 (photos from June 21) 11 weeks using PC 2% BHA products--8 weeks of consistent 2%BHA Clear toner Big bumps gone. Pores still cleaning out and lesions that occur are smaller. Red marks still hanging on. happy with progress--no spots due to *ladies time* =========== First 3 weeks collage and large photo on bottom is now (June 21) 8 weeks later =========== 15 weeks!!! Sept 7, 2014
Basically reviewing if lipid peroxidation is the beginning of acne and if antioxidants which prevent such breakdown can control acne. Also, may be why certain meds work like retinol, birth control, etc which all show antioxidant properties and anti inflmamtory response. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3012032/ Abstract Acne vulgaris is a common dermatological disorder, one that is frequently associated with depression, anxiety and other psychological sequelae. In recent years there has been an increasing focus on the extent to which oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of acne. Emerging studies have shown that patients with acne are under increased cutaneous and systemic oxidative stress. Indeed, there are indications that lipid peroxidation itself is a match that lights an inflammatory cascade in acne. The notion that lipid peroxidation is a 'starter gun' in acne is not a new one; here we review the nearly 50-year-old lipid peroxidation theory and provide a historical perspective to the contemporary investigations and clinical implications. In addition, we present a novel hypothesis in which lipid peroxidation may be priming an increased susceptibility to co-morbid depression and anxiety in those with acne. The emerging research on the systemic burden of oxidative stress in acne sheds further light on the brain-skin axis. The recent findings also suggest potential avenues of approach for the treatment of acne via specific nutrients, dietary modifications, oral and topical interventions.
http://www.acne.org/the-ziit-method.html This is a method you can use if you want to do everything you possibly can to prevent a zit from forming. It is important that you catch the pimple early, in its initial stages. Once a pimple is full-blown, this method may help it heal a bit faster, but there will not be much you can do at that point. Zinc Zinc helps heal wounds, is an antioxidant, and acts as an anti-inflammatory.1-2 It has been shown in several studies to help heal acne.3-5 Be sure to check the label of your zinc bottle to be certain the zinc you are taking is zinc gluconate. While evidence is still not concrete, zinc gluconate may be superior to other varieties of zinc. Dosage (do not exceed this dosage):Take a 30-50mg pill once per day with food. Zinc can cause nausea when taken on an empty stomach. Don’t take more than 50mg because zinc can become toxic if you take too much. Ibuprofen Note: NSAIDs are not appropriate for everyone, so be sure to talk to your doctor before taking NSAIDs. Ibuprofen is an NSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory). Other NSAIDs you can use are Naproxen (AKA Naproxen Sodium) or aspirin. NSAIDs reduce swelling and have the added benefit of reducing any pain the zit is producing. NSAIDs are designed for occasional use. Do not take NSAIDs every day on an ongoing basis for acne. Dosage (do not exceed these dosages): Ibuprofen (Advil®): Adult dosage is two pills (400mg) every 4-6 hours. Do not exceed 3200mg/day. Naproxen (Aleve®): Adult dosage is one pill every 8 to 12 hours. For the first dose, you may take 2 pills within the first hour. Do not exceed 2 pills in any 8- to 12-hour period and do not exceed 3 pills in a 24-hour period. Aspirin (Bayer®): Adult dosage is 1-2 regular strength or extra strength pills (325-500mg) every 4 hours. Do not exceed 4000mg/day. Ice Ice is a powerful anti-inflammatory that you can use to directly target inflammation. Put an ice cube in a Ziploc® bag for an easy and mess proof way of applying ice. Very gently hold the ice over the site of the zit until the area goes numb. Since the skin of the face is so thin, you only need to apply ice for 5 minutes. Be absolutely certain not to press too hard. Anything which rubs against the skin can cause irritation, and irritation can make the zit worse, so just sit the ice gently on the skin. How often: Applying ice twice per day will help quite a bit. However, you may apply ice up to once per hour. Treat The combination of 2.5% benzoyl peroxide and 10% glycolic acid can often halt a zit in its tracks all on its own. When combined with the above steps, it is even more effective. Benzoyl peroxide reduces inflammation, dries and peels, and kills acne bacteria. Glycolic acid exfoliates and signals the skin below to quicken cell turnover which can help a pimple heal more quickly. Very gently apply a small amount of 2.5% benzoyl peroxide to the zit until it is more-or-less absorbed. Wait 5 minutes for it to dry completely and then apply a small amount of 10% glycolic acid in the same manner—very gently until it is more-or-less absorbed. How often: Apply 2.5% benzoyl peroxide + 10% glycolic acid no more than twice per day unless you have particularly tough skin. Most people will experience too much dryness and irritation if applying 3 or more times per day. There are also other things you can do which might help. Omega-3 fats, such as those found in wild (not farmed) fish or Omega-3 fish oil supplements may help reduce inflammation. There is still not enough research to know whether vegetarian sources of Omega-3 like flax or flax seed oil have the same effect. Also, getting 8-10 hours of sleep will help the body heal faster.
For tiny pimples which I call surface types: I have found that benzyl peroxide works great. Takes a few days but dries them up. I have found that a lower 5% concentration works better without over drying. I use Oxy Clinical time released. When my skin is dry, I alternate Olay night repair moisturizer (it's a purple cream) Cysts: Ice Sometimes heat--a wet wash cloth heated in microwave and held on cysts. I have noticed either they come to a head quicker OR they deflate. I also mix an aspirin with some water based moisturizer and spot treatment (supposed to decrease inflammation) OTC antibiotic cream (I use Bacitracin) Sulfur (in many masks. Mario Badescu has one which i have used..I've also used green tea poultice (with sulfur) from Skintactix **Going to try out an oil blend called Thieves from Young Living and see how that works. Eucalyptus is supposed to be effective on acne***
Source: Jan 22, 2013: Started 2% SA from Diana Yvonne (skinbio) Jan 24, 2013: Stared multi B complex Feb 5, 2013: started using ACV toner (diluted to 4pH) to help bring levels to normal after washing Feb 8, 2013: 6 big spots, inflamed, ice doesn't help..using TTO Feb 19, 2013: spots coming to head Feb 25, 2013: spots still coming up, bad skin, dull, red April, 1, 2013: spots still getting bad but not super cysts--just inflamed (nodules?) April 2, 2013: stopped ACV toner thinking it may be either irritating skin or drying too much April 5/6: spots clearing April 7, lots of plugs coming out April 8, stopped SA for most part and using Olay cream--skin dry April 13-14 taking aleve to help with inflammation April 17, started new makeup (rimmel). no new spots, just ones not coming to heads. April 20--big spots on chin, painful cyst like. First day of period so maybe hormone related. Taking aleve. May: been back on SA in the mornings and BP in the evenings. face seems to be doing well enough. Still seeing spots, but more inflamed bumps, not cyst type. Plugs still coming out. saw someone say they purged for 6 weeks on SA so I am hopeful this may be the case. Took a while to start anything that looked like purging, but guess that can't be unnatural since many report having a purge around 12 weeks or so on Retin A..and SA probably takes longer. Started taking Niacin (the insotiol or whatever stuff). Half a 500mg capsule here and there. Also taking a multi vit and a b complex still. may 13, about 16 weeks on SA now. So 4 months. Been using as regimen: morning, wash, use tiny bit of ACV toner, add SA. After the 20 mins or so, use olay moisturizer or other moisturizer. Or use skintactix green tea poultice. night: wash, use BP (5% oxy clinical), spot treat with either antibiotic cream , TT, or sulfur mask. Skin has been drying out, so thinking the poultice and the BP is too much. So, not going to use full face poultice until summer if my skin gets real oily, as the clay helps keep it matte.
Products to check into Moisturizers - Neostrata - Ultra-Smoothing Cream (10% Glycolic Acid) http://www.makeupalley.com/product/showreview.asp?itemid=46688 Sebamed clear face items http://www.sebamedusa.com/product-lines-clear-face.html http://www.sebamed.com/products/product.html?tx_nsproductdatabase_pi1[showUid]=117 CLEAR FACE ANTIBACTERIAL CLEANSING FOAM Intensive, antibacterial and gentle skin cleansing with an anti-pimple effect and intensive care effect with a pH value of 5.5Aqua, Cocamidopropyl Betainamide MEA Chloride, Cocotrimonium Methosulfate, Sodium Lactate, Panthenol, Parfum, Phenoxyethanol- See more at: http://www.sebamed.com/products/product.html?tx_nsproductdatabase_pi1[showUid]=117#sthash.XY1ICl08.dpuf CLEAR FACE ANTIBACTERIAL CLEANSING FOAM Intensive, antibacterial and gentle skin cleansing with an anti-pimple effect and intensive care effect with a pH value of 5.5Aqua, Cocamidopropyl Betainamide MEA Chloride, Cocotrimonium Methosulfate, Sodium Lactate, Panthenol, Parfum, Phenoxyethanol- See more at: http://www.sebamed.com/products/product.html?tx_nsproductdatabase_pi1[showUid]=117#sthash.XY1ICl08.dpuf CLEAR FACE ANTIBACTERIAL CLEANSING FOAM Intensive, antibacterial and gentle skin cleansing with an anti-pimple effect and intensive care effect with a pH value of 5.5Aqua, Cocamidopropyl Betainamide MEA Chloride, Cocotrimonium Methosulfate, Sodium Lactate, Panthenol, Parfum, Phenoxyethanol- See more at: http://www.sebamed.com/products/product.html?tx_nsproductdatabase_pi1[showUid]=117#sthash.XY1ICl08.dpuf CLEAR FACE ANTIBACTERIAL CLEANSING FOAM CLEAR FACE ANTIBACTERIAL CLEANSING FOAM Intensive, antibacterial and gentle skincleansing with an anti-pimple effect andintensive care effect with a pH value of 5.5 Ingredients: Aqua, Cocamidopropyl Betainamide MEA Chloride, Cocotrimonium Methosulfate, Sodium Lactate, Panthenol, Parfum, Phenoxyethanol Face Secrets Facial Cleansing Brush http://www.makeupalley.com/product/showreview.asp?itemid=111201 Olay - Professional Pro-X Advanced Cleansing System http://www.makeupalley.com/product/showreview.asp/ItemId=138969/Professional_Pro-X_Advanced_Cleansing_System/Olay/Misc_Beauty_Tools cleanser called Dermamed's Herbal Cleanser it has. SA2%, green tea extract, water, vegetable glycerin as its ingredients only. Rosehip + Hibiscus Facial Serum http://www.madefromearth.com/content/rosehip-hibiscus-facial-serum ============================ drospirenone spiro