(just a few):A)
Int J Epidemiol. 1993 Dec;22(6):1000-9. Related Articles, LinksÂ
Int J Epidemiol 1994 Dec;23(6):1330.The influence of medical conditions associated with hormones on the risk of breast cancer.
Moseson M, Koenig KL, Shore RE, Pasternack BS.
Department of Environmental Medicine, NYU Medical Center, NY 10010-2598.
Medical conditions related to hormonal abnormalities were investigated in a case-control study of breast cancer among women who attended a screening centre. Information was obtained by telephone interview regarding physician-diagnosed medical conditions such as thyroid or liver diseases, diabetes, and hypertension, as well as hirsutism, acne, galactorrhoea, and reproductive, menstrual, and gynaecological factors. Results are presented for 354 cases and 747 controls. Women with fertility problems who never succeeded in becoming pregnant were at significantly increased breast cancer risk (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 3.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.1-10.9). An elevated cancer risk was also associated with having excess body hair (OR = 1.5; 95% CI:1.0-2.3), or having excess body hair in addition to persistent adult acne (OR = 6.8; 95% CI:1.7-27.1).
Recurrent amenorrhea (OR = 3.5; 95% CI:1.1-11.5), and a treated hyperthyroid condition (OR = 2.2; 95% CI:1.1-4.4) were significantly associated with risk. A non-significant elevation of risk was present for endometrial hyperplasia (OR = 1.8; 95% CI: 0.8-4.0). There was a suggestion of an association between a history of galactorrhoea and breast cancer risk (OR = 2.0; 95% CI:0.8-4.9) among premenopausal women. No associations were found with other medical or gynaecological factors. The possibility that some of these findings are due to chance cannot be excluded because of the problem of multiple comparisonshttp://www.ncbi.nlm....st_uids=8144280
J Endocrinol Invest. 2001 Sep;24(8):628-38. Related Articles, LinksÂ Skin disorders and thyroid diseases
Niepomniszcze H, Amad RH.
Division of Endocrinology, Hospital de Clinicas Jose de San Martin, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina. firstname.lastname@example.org
Thyroid disorders have a high prevalence in medical practice; they are associated with a wide range of diseases with which they may or may not share etiological factors. One of the organs which best show this wide range of clinical signs is the skin.
This review is an attempt to approach most of the dermopathies reflecting several degrees of harmfulness, coming directly or indirectly from thyroid abnormalities, as well as to update current knowledge on the relationship between the thyroid and skin. We have proposed a primary classification of skin disorders, regarding thyroid involvement, into two main groups: 1) dermopathies associated with thyroid abnormalities
, mainly with autoimmune thyroid diseases, like melasma, vitiligo, Sjogren's syndrome, alopecia, idiopathic hirsutism, pre-menstrual acne, bullous diseases, connective tissue diseases, hamartoma syndrome, atopy, leprosy and DiGeorge anomaly; and 2) dermopathies depending on the nature of the thyroid disorder
, in which the evolution and outcome of the skin disorder depend on the thyroidal treatment in most cases, such as trophism and skin blood flow, myxedema, alopecia, onychodystrophy, hypo- and hyperhidrosis, xanthomas, intraepidermal bullae, carotenodermia, pruritus, flushing, pyodermitis, palmoplantar keratoderma, ecchymosis, etc. In some other cases, the skin disease which developed as a consequence of the thyroid abnormality can remain unaltered despite functional treatment of the thyroid problem, such as pretibial myxedema, thyroid acropachy and some cutaneous manifestations of multiple endocrine neoplasia types 2A and 2B.http://www.ncbi.nlm....t_uids=11686547
Br J Dermatol. 2003 Jun;148(6):1263-6. Related Articles, LinksÂ
Â Congenital adrenal hyperplasia and acne in male patients
Degitz K, Placzek M, Arnold B, Schmidt H, Plewig G.
Department of Dermatology, Ludwig-Maximilian-University, Munchen, Germany. email@example.com
Seborrhoea is one pathogenic factor for acne. Androgens induce sebum production, and excess androgen may provoke or aggravate acne. In women an androgen disorder is frequently suspected when acne is accompanied by hirsutism or menstrual irregularities. In men acne may be the only symptom of androgen excess.
We report three male acne patients in whom hormonal screening revealed irregularities of androgen metabolism suggestive of late-onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia
and who benefitted from low-dose glucocorticoids. Disorders of androgen metabolism may influence acne not only in women, but also in men, and these patients may benefit from low-dose glucocorticoid therapy.http://www.ncbi.nlm....t_uids=12828760
Am J Clin Dermatol. 2003;4(5):315-31. Related Articles, LinksÂ Cutaneous manifestations of endocrine disorders: a guide for dermatologists.
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA. firstname.lastname@example.orgDermatologists may commonly see skin lesions that reflect an underlying endocrine disorder. Identifying the endocrinopathy is very important, so that patients can receive corrective rather than symptomatic treatment.
Skin diseases with underlying endocrine pathology include: thyrotoxicosis; hypothyroidism; Cushing syndrome; Addison disease; acromegaly; hyperandrogenism; hypopituitarism; primary hyperparathyroidism; hypoparathyroidism; pseudohypoparathyroidism and manifestations of diabetes mellitus. Thyrotoxicosis
may lead to multiple cutaneous manifestations, including hair loss, pretibial myxedema, onycholysis and acropachy. In patients with hypothyroidism
, there is hair loss, the skin is cold and pale, with myxedematous changes, mainly in the hands and in the periorbital region.The striking features of Cushing syndrome
are centripetal obesity, moon facies, buffalo hump, supraclavicular fat pads, and abdominal striae. In Addison disease
, the skin is hyperpigmented, mostly on the face, neck and back of the hands.Virtually all patients with acromegaly have acral and soft tissue overgrowth, with characteristic findings, like macrognathia and enlarged hands and feet. The skin is thickened, and facial features are coarser.Conditions leading to hyperandrogenism
in females present as acne, hirsutism and signs of virilization (temporal balding, clitoromegaly).A prominent feature of hypopituitarism
is a pallor of the skin with a yellowish tinge. The skin is also thinner, resulting in fine wrinkling around the eyes and mouth, making the patient look older.Primary hyperparathyroidism
is rarely associated with pruritus and chronic urticaria. In hypoparathyroidism
, the skin is dry, scaly and puffy. Nails become brittle and hair is coarse and sparse. Pseudohypoparathyroidism
may have a special somatic phenotype known as Albright osteodystrophy. This consists of short stature, short neck, brachydactyly and subcutaneous calcifications.Some of the cutaneous manifestations of diabetes mellitus
include necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum, diabetic dermopathy, scleredema adultorum and acanthosis nigricans.http://www.ncbi.nlm....t_uids=12688837
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Feb;89(2):453-62. Related Articles, LinksÂ
Â Androgen excess in women: experience with over 1000 consecutive patients
Azziz R, Sanchez LA, Knochenhauer ES, Moran C, Lazenby J, Stephens KC, Taylor K, Boots LR.
Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35233, USA. email@example.com
The objective of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of the different pathological conditions causing clinically evident androgen excess and to document the degree of long-term success of suppressive and/or antiandrogen hormonal therapy in a large consecutive population of patients. All patients presenting for evaluation of symptoms potentially related to androgen excess between October 1987 and June 2002 were evaluated, and the data were maintained prospectively in a computerized database. For the assessment of therapeutic response, a retrospective review of the medical chart was performed, after the exclusion of those patients seeking fertility therapy only, or with inadequate follow-up or poor compliance. A total of 1281 consecutive patients were seen during the study period. Excluded from analysis were 408 patients in whom we were unable to evaluate hormonal status, determine ovulatory status, or find any evidence of androgen excess. In the remaining population of 873 patients, the unbiased prevalence of androgen-secreting neoplasms
was 0.2%, 21-hydroxylase-deficient classic adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)
was 0.6%, 21-hydroxylase-deficient nonclassic adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH)
was 1.6%, hyperandrogenic insulin-resistant acanthosis nigricans (HAIRAN) syndrome
was 3.1%, idiopathic hirsutism
was 4.7%, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
was 82.0%. Fifty-nine (6.75%) patients had elevated androgen levels and hirsutism but normal ovulation. A total of 257 patients were included in the assessment of the response to hormonal therapy. The mean duration of follow-up was 33.5 months (range, 6-155). Hirsutism improved in 86%, menstrual dysfunction in 80%, acne in 81%, and hair loss in 33% of patients. The major side effects noted were irregular vaginal bleeding (16.1%), nausea (13.0%), and headaches (12.6%); only 36.6% of patients never complained of side effects. In this large study of consecutive patients presenting with clinically evident androgen excess, specific identifiable disorders (NCAH, CAH, HAIRAN syndrome, and androgen-secreting neoplasms) were observed in approximately 7% of subjects, whereas functional androgen excess, principally PCOS, was observed in the remainder. Hirsutism, menstrual dysfunction, or acne, but not alopecia, improved in the majority of patients treated with a combination suppressive therapy; although more than 60% experienced side effects.http://www.ncbi.nlm....t_uids=14764747
Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2003 Sep;136(1):95-112. Related Articles, LinksÂ
Â Hyperinsulinemic diseases of civilization: more than just Syndrome X
Cordain L, Eades MR, Eades MD.
Department of Health and Exercise Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Compensatory hyperinsulinemia stemming from peripheral insulin resistance is a well-recognized metabolic disturbance that is at the root cause
of diseases and maladies of Syndrome X (hypertension, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, obesity, abnormal glucose tolerance).
Abnormalities of fibrinolysis and hyperuricemia also appear to be members of the cluster of illnesses comprising Syndrome X. Insulin is a well-established growth-promoting hormone, and recent evidence indicates that hyperinsulinemia causes a shift in a number of endocrine pathways that may favor unregulated tissue growth leading to additional illnesses. Specifically, hyperinsulinemia elevates serum concentrations of free insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and androgens, while simultaneously reducing insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG).
Since IGFBP-3 is a ligand for the nuclear retinoid X receptor alpha, insulin-mediated reductions in IGFBP-3 may also influence transcription of anti-proliferative genes normally activated by the body's endogenous retinoids. These endocrine shifts alter cellular proliferation and growth in a variety of tissues, the clinical course of which may promote acne, early menarche, certain epithelial cell carcinomas, increased stature, myopia, cutaneous papillomas (skin tags), acanthosis nigricans, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and male vertex balding. Consequently, these illnesses and conditions may, in part, have hyperinsulinemia at their root cause and therefore should be classified among the diseases of Syndrome X http://www.ncbi.nlm....t_uids=14527633
ScientificWorldJournal. 2004 Jul 08;4:507-11. Related Articles, LinksÂ Clinical profiles, occurrence, and management of adolescent patients with HAIR-AN syndrome.
Omar HA, Logsdon S, Richards J.
Section of Adolescent Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0284, USA. email@example.com
The syndrome of hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, and acanthosis nigricans (HAIR-AN) is a subphenotype of the polycystic ovary syndrome
. It is one of the most common causes of menstrual problems, hyperandrogenic symptoms, and insulin resistance among young women. Review of clinical data in an outpatient adolescent clinic showed that of the 1,002 young women (ages 10-21 years) attending the clinic over a 2-year period, 50 (5%) were diagnosed with HAIR-AN syndrome. Mean age of the patients was 15.5, initial mean weight at diagnosis was 94.5 kg, and the mean BMI was 33.33 kg/m2. Patients were treated with a weight-stabilization and -reduction program, oral contraceptive pills, and in most cases metformin. Of the patients, 80% were compliant with the follow-up and treatment regimen, 60% maintained or reduced their weight, 95% had regular menstrual cycles, and in most patients, the acne and/or hirsutism were the same or better than at the start of treatment. We conclude that HAIR-AN syndrome is a common disease in young women and multifaceted, aggressive treatment appears to be effective in reducing the severity of symptoms and preventing further consequences. http://www.ncbi.nlm....t_uids=15258677
Obes Rev. 2002 Nov;3(4):303-8. Related Articles, Links Prostate cancer: another aspect of the insulin-resistance syndrome?
Barnard RJ, Aronson WJ, Tymchuk CN, Ngo TH.
firstname.lastname@example.orgInsulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinaemia are thought to be the underlying factors in the metabolic or insulin-resistance syndrome and can be controlled by diet and exercise.
Hyperinsulinaemia has been shown to have a direct effect on the live, suppressing the production of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins 1 and 2 (IGFBP-1, -2) while stimulating the production of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). These factors have been proposed to be important modulators of hormone-related cancers, such as prostate cancer. Men adopting a low-fat diet and daily exercise reduced their levels of serum insulin and IGF-1, while increasing their levels of IGFBP-1 and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG).
Cell-culture studies with LNCaP prostate cancer cells showed apoptosis of tumour cells and a reduction in serum-stimulated cell growth in the post diet and exercise serum. These results suggest that prostate cancer
may be another aspect of the insulin-resistance syndrome and that adopting a low-fat diet combined with regular exercise may reduce the risk for prostate and other hormone-related cancers. This needs to be tested with prospective studies. http://www.ncbi.nlm....t_uids=12458975