Acne Prone Skin/sebum Deficient In Linoleic Acid, Possible Topical Solution

212 posts in this topic

Hey! I think that might be the first study of topical linoleic acid on acne patients posted here. Good find.

i put evening primrose oil topically and it didn't really help my acne after 1 month but i know there are studies showing it to help such as the following one: http://www.ncbi.nlm..../pubmed/9692305

"A major pathogenic factor of acne is the disturbed keratinization of the follicular infundibulum. It has been hypothesized that a relative decrease in linoleic acid in the sebum could be responsible, in part, for this. The aim of the present study was objectively to evaluate the effects of topically applied linoleic acid on the size of microcomedones in patients with mild acne. The design was a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized cross-over study. Evaluations were performed by digital image analysis of cyanoacrylate follicular biopsies. There was a significant effect of topically applied linoleic acid on the size of follicular casts and microcomedones, an almost 25% reduction in their overall size being achieved over a 1-month treatment period. In contrast, no change was found at placebo-treated sites. It is concluded that topical linoleic acid might play a role as a comedolytic agent in acne-prone patients."

i would love to use linoleic acid in the future but evening primrose is so oily.

i have been taking vitamin d for 2 months and in the study were it cured acne for 50% of people and significantly helped it for 76% it took 3 months. I am unhappy to report that the only thing that seems to be working for me is drinking acv and applying zinc oxide topically but I for sure be applying some vitamin d to my skin in the future. heres my theory why people get acne in the winter. we are out in the sun during the summer and the vitamin d is directly manufactured on our skin! hence on our skin on our face!

i think that that taking it in pill form takes so long to work because it never is made in the skin!!! it takes month to make it to the skin layer! by getting that vitamin d directly on the face I beleive it will directly available to my skin cells and will simulate the idea of putting my face in the sun during the summer!.

now all that is left is for me to get some vitamin d and put it on topically i will do that right now.

btw i have noticed everyone at school who never has acne in the summer is getting some during the winter!! there has to... there has to be a connection!

wow! after reading that study you posted about the zuelo whatever it is called i looked at the wiki page for it! turns out it inhibits something that GLA inhibits as well! i will continue drinking the evening primrose oil! thanks!

Yeah, I posted about a cause for the increase in winter earlier in this thread. Something about reduced ceramide production I think. Apply topical yogurt. And of course, there's the reduced vitamin d which affects cell proliferation.

Edited by alternativista

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A question about time of healing. If I were to use topical linoleic acid to reduce the above discussed possible causes of acne- how long do you all think it would take topically to lessen cell proliferation or at least the hardening of the sebum? I've been using topical grapeseed oil for almost a month now and I have to say: it has been wonderful and certainly does not clog my pores. I just like to intimately understand the body and what I do to it so I'd like to imagine the timeline of what is happening to my skin monthly as I apply this

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So, today. I'm switching to hemp seed oil for topical application for myself and the dog. It seems a little greasier than the safflower. It's not as nice. But we'll see if it does anything different for us.

Because of the holidays and the abundance of turkey, i have recently been giving my dog turkey bone broth and the scraps from boiling it up. Plus I allowed my sister to feed him the less than premium corn and wheat and chicken based dry dog food she uses. He had a couple of meals of that. And he seems extra itchy the last few days. Seriously tormented, actually.

Edited by alternativista

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-The relationship of diet and acne http://www.ncbi.nlm....les/PMC2836431/

Full paper. Big sections exploring PPARS, lipids in sebum, etc. Tons of research cited to explore further.

-Antiproliferative effect of vitamin A and D analogues on adult human keratinocytes in vitro.

http://www.ncbi.nlm....ubmed/18509257/

Zileuton, an oral 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, directly reduces sebum production.

Zouboulis ChC, Saborowski A, Boschnakow A.

Source

Department of Dermatology, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin, Germany. [email protected]

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Zileuton, a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, reduces the number of inflammatory lesions in moderate acne and inhibits the synthesis of sebaceous lipids.

OBJECTIVE:

To detect whether zileuton directly reduces sebum synthesis.

METHODS:

A 40-year-old female with mild disseminated sebaceous gland hyperplasia and seborrhea was treated with zileuton 4 x 600 mg/day over 2 weeks, was followed-up for 6 weeks after discontinuation of zileuton and was re-treated with low-dose isotretinoin 10 mg/2nd day over 5 weeks. Casual skin surface lipids and sebum synthesis were determined.

RESULTS:

Under treatment with zileuton increased casual skin surface lipids were normalized and synthesis of facial sebum was decreased. Six weeks after discontinuation of treatment casual skin surface lipids were increased again and synthesis of sebum returned to baseline. Subsequent low-dose isotretinoin treatment led to similar changes of casual skin surface lipids and sebum synthesis with zileuton already after 2 weeks.

CONCLUSION:

Zileuton directly inhibits sebum synthesis in a transient manner with a potency similar to low-dose isotretinoin at least in our patient.

From the wiki pedia page

Zileuton is an active oral inhibitor of the enzyme 5-lipoxygenase, which forms leukotrienes from arachidonic acid.

Zileuton is a minor substrate of CYP1A2, 2C8/9, 3A4, and a weak inhibitor of CYP 1A2.

The enzyme previously mentioned as a possible culprit in our linoleic acid deficiency.

There's also some talk about caffeine for anyone wanting to follow up on why caffeine breaks them out. But it mentions that there's been little research.

Edited by alternativista

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http://www.ncbi.nlm..../pubmed/9692305

Digital image analysis of the effect of topically applied linoleic acid on acne microcomedones.

Letawe C, Boone M, Piérard GE.

Source

Department of Dermatopathology, University of Liège, Belgium.

Abstract

A major pathogenic factor of acne is the disturbed keratinization of the follicular infundibulum. It has been hypothesized that a relative decrease in linoleic acid in the sebum could be responsible, in part, for this. The aim of the present study was objectively to evaluate the effects of topically applied linoleic acid on the size of microcomedones in patients with mild acne. The design was a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized cross-over study. Evaluations were performed by digital image analysis of cyanoacrylate follicular biopsies. There was a significant effect of topically applied linoleic acid on the size of follicular casts and microcomedones, an almost 25% reduction in their overall size being achieved over a 1-month treatment period. In contrast, no change was found at placebo-treated sites. It is concluded that topical linoleic acid might play a role as a comedolytic agent in acne-prone patients.

microcoedones are the smallest form of an acne lesion, it is the very beginning of a pore blockage. It cannot be seen with the naked eye.

Edited by alternativista

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So, today. I'm switching to hemp seed oil for topical application for myself and the dog. It seems a little greasier than the safflower. It's not as nice. But we'll see if it does anything different for us.

Because of the holidays and the abundance of turkey, i have recently been giving my dog turkey bone broth and the scraps from boiling it up. Plus I allowed my sister to feed him the less than premium corn and wheat and chicken based dry dog food she uses. He had a couple of meals of that. And he seems extra itchy the last few days. Seriously tormented, actually.

so its been a month. and i definitely prefer safflower or grapeseed oil to hemp. ill be blending them until the hemp oil is gone. and eat some as a supplement. The dog won't eat the hemp oil, though. but loves the safflower. Its the one thing I do to him that makes him happy.

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so its been a month. and i definitely prefer safflower or grapeseed oil to hemp. ill be blending them until the hemp oil is gone. and eat some as a supplement. The dog won't eat the hemp oil, though. but loves the safflower. Its the one thing I do to him that makes him happy.

Have you tried cold pressed sesame seed oil? it seems to be known as the queen of all oils due to how well it works for skin/internally, and how well it absorbs into the skin. I've read that it is great for scars too. i love trying new stuff so i'm going to see how it works for the next month or so. I don't have active acne, or much scarring too be honest, but enough to where i'd be able to tell if it had an effect

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Paper examining lipid profile of sebum:

Sebaceous gland lipids

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2835893/

See references to studies on how carbohydrate levels in the diet affect sebum composition.

The effect of a low glycemic load diet on acne vulgaris and the fatty acid composition of skin surface triglycerides.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18178063

Also:

Dietary intervention in acne: Attenuation of increased mTORC1 signaling promoted by Western diet.
The relationship of diet and acne

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It just occurred to me that I should have taken a picture of my dog at the height of his hairloss so I could now show you one now in which it's all grown back. He had a pretty near naked rear end (on his back near the base of the tale) and abdomen and bare spots on his tail and legs. The fur on his back is now super thick and the patches on his tail and legs have disappeared. And it's a lot harder to bathe him now with his thick coat....

So, I began researching this last April and began using safflower oil on myself and the dog soon after. The dog also ingests it. He likes it. And in fact I don't apply it topically to him very often any more. So perhaps this is a bit of a debunk of the experts who don't feel that the linoleic acid in our sebum is systemic or dietary. At least the dietary part. Because I do think ingesting it is helping him. I have not tried ingesting it myself.

Edited by alternativista

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So perhaps this is a bit of a debunk of the experts who don't feel that the linoleic acid in our sebum is systemic or dietary. At least the dietary part.

But the vast majority of the population gets plenty of linoleic acid from diets. If sebum linoleic acid really is dietary, very few people would be deficient there.

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So perhaps this is a bit of a debunk of the experts who don't feel that the linoleic acid in our sebum is systemic or dietary. At least the dietary part.

But the vast majority of the population gets plenty of linoleic acid from diets. If sebum linoleic acid really is dietary, very few people would be deficient there.

Yeah, but perhaps it's about the quality? Most people probably consume a lot of oxidized PUFAs

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Hautarzt. 2008 May 18.

[Acne : Current pathophysiologic considerations.][Article in German]


Degitz K, Ochsendorf F.
Dermatologische Gemeinschaftspraxis, Pasinger Bahnhofsplatz1, 81241, München, Deutschland, [email protected]

Seborrhea, follicular hyperkeratosis, propionibacteria, and inflammatory reactions are the most important factors leading to acne. The combination of increased sebum producation and follicular hyperkeratosis facilitates an increased growth of Propionibacterium acnes. Its metabolic products lead to follicular inflammation and, in extreme cases, even to perifollicular abscesses. Sebum production is influenced by androgens, so that abnormalities in androgen levels can produce seborrhea and acne. Follicular hyperkeratosis may be triggered by a relative deficiency in linoleic acid, peroxides from sebum components, and especially by inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-1. Bacterial metabolic products such as lipases, proteases, or chemotactic factors lead to the perifollicular inflammation . This inflammation is not only a response to other pathogenetic factors, but also a cause of acne. An initial mild perifollicular infammation can induce comedogenesis via a variety of mediators. The influence of dietary factors on the initiation and course of acne has recently received increased recognition. A connection has been postulated between acne and a high nutrients with glycemic index, as well as with milk products.
http://www.ncbi.nlm....Pubmed_RVDocSum

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This study on white button mushrooms as a breast cancer chemo preventative found that the active compounds, linoleic acid and conjugated linoleic acid, reduced cell proliferation.

http://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/white-button-mushrooms-have-anti-aromatase-activity-and-may-provide-idea-breast-cancer

And this one on resveraterol found that it reduces testosterone influenced cell proliferation. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/resveratrol-bilevel-inhibitor-aromatase-breast-cancer-cells

Edited by alternativista

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I decided to give grapeseed oil a try because of this thread. I've been using it as a precleanse. I apply it to dry skin and rub it in vigorously for a few minutes. I know this sounds pretty gross, but after a few minutes a bunch of sebum clogs pop out and I can feel all of them as I rub my face. Then I rinse it off and follow with my usual cleanser. So far I'm really impressed by how great this is for unclogging my pores. I'm just hoping it's not a temporary effect and I won't wind up breaking out from it in the long run. I guess I'll have to wait and see.

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In theory, using an oil with linoleic acid in to change the lipid profile of your skin seems like a great idea. i was combining this with oil cleansing (castor oil, hemp seed oil, tamanu oil mix). in theory it would dissolve all of the oil plugs i have, then change my lipid profile so that they dont get blocked again.

I switched to from safflower to hemp seed oil for about a month and my keratosis pilares and some blackheads came back. It doesn't seem to work as well.

I decided to give grapeseed oil a try because of this thread. I've been using it as a precleanse. I apply it to dry skin and rub it in vigorously for a few minutes. I know this sounds pretty gross, but after a few minutes a bunch of sebum clogs pop out and I can feel all of them as I rub my face. Then I rinse it off and follow with my usual cleanser. So far I'm really impressed by how great this is for unclogging my pores. I'm just hoping it's not a temporary effect and I won't wind up breaking out from it in the long run. I guess I'll have to wait and see.

Congratulations. Others have said massaging in oil made their blackheads and other plugs pop out. I never noticed such miracles right before my eyes, but it did gradually clear the blackheads and KP.

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I used to use a moisturizer called Dove Deep Moisture. It was the best facial lotion and of course they discontinued it. It had spf 15 and even though I am so oily, it was my favorite moisturizer. Now I know why. It had linoleic acid in it along with Vit E, Vit A, ceramides, green tea, grapeseed extract, zinc. I never knew why at the time, but looking over this thread, I see it had great ingredients. Wish I could find another lotion like it.

I'm not real keen on putting oil on my face. Anyone know a lotion that might be like the Dove one?

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I used to use a moisturizer called Dove Deep Moisture. It was the best facial lotion and of course they discontinued it. It had spf 15 and even though I am so oily, it was my favorite moisturizer. Now I know why. It had linoleic acid in it along with Vit E, Vit A, ceramides, green tea, grapeseed extract, zinc. I never knew why at the time, but looking over this thread, I see it had great ingredients. Wish I could find another lotion like it.

I'm not real keen on putting oil on my face. Anyone know a lotion that might be like the Dove one?

Make it. Habits listed here including the linoleic acid boost ceramides production.

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vista, when you say topical linoleic acid what exactly are you referring to? breaking open CLA capsules or applying an oil high in linoleic acid like grapeseed or hemp oil? My chin gets hard solified whiteheads trapped in the crease and under my lips. Its dry and flakey all the time but these whiteheads are so deep, not the pus kind but look like it. They literally have to be dug out and I wondering why its not better since Ive dealt with my thyroid problems. I really thought that since I was now permanently on thyroid meds (had my thyroid removed in december due to cancer) this would somehow alter the sebum composition of my skin. I just cant seem to stop the keratinization of all this plugs.

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Hi All

Altavista, I have not read the entire thread. Quick question and a bit of backstory. Thank you for all of this interesting info. Sorry for the somewhat longish post....

I have just started a salicylic acid toner/hemp seed oil (very small amount-2drops AM and PM) to change my sebum and unplug my pores. The SA breaks up existing plugs, the hemp seed prevents the formation of new ones over time. I was told it could take 4 months to clear or maybe a bit more....This regimen was developed here:

http://practicalbohemianbeauty.blogspot.com/

http://www.etsy.com/shop/MiriBotanicals

I have chemical sensitivities/weakened immune system and a bladder condition called Interstitial Cystitis. Too much BP (per the regimen on this site) sent my bladder into a horrible flare for 3 days. I am being treated for my condition by a Traditional Chinese Medicine doctor. She wanted me to stop the BP and SA. I did, of course, and foolishly added in jojoba oil!! thinking it did control oil and maybe it would help me transition out of BP-land.

Boy was I ever WRONG. After stopping the BP and SA cold turkey and adding jojoba, my face is loaded with a MILLION whiteheads and blackheads, mostly whiteheads. I have NEVER been this bad in my whole life. A rash of a million bumps across my face. The ones on my cheeks and jaw are really inflammed.

I can tell the hemp is very calming and it is loosening the plugs. I caved today and tried to go get extractions but I can't really use traditional peels/extraction prep, so I brought my hemp oil and steam and the aesthetitican did not know how to extract closed comedones, (I realize, it is tricky....) so not much there. But she did try to convince me that a little BP would get me out of this horrible mess. So then I started thinking, maybe I can tolerate a little BP like I used to be able to do in the past 6 months (I can't use Dan's formula because it flared me). I might put some on for a few hours and then wash it off.

Do you think that the BP will negate the effects of the hemp seed oil? Maybe best I just wash off the BP after a bit. Or do you think I can use them together for a while. My goal is to only use a SA toner, and hemp oil, but I have to get out of this red, bumpy mess.

Thanks for reading, and for any thoughts!!!



I should add that I have not eaten sugar in 8 months (wow, can't beleive that!). No alcohol. No yeast (special diet to heal my gut and bladder). When I had to go off BP, I cut out dairy (sigh) and gluten (sigh). So I am basically paleo for a while, with occasional rice. (Sigh) So diet is probably not a factor.

Congrats on your clearing of your acne!!



BTW, Jordey, if you are reading, you said you tried the hemp oil for 2 months? The woman that developed the SA toner (make at home yourself, she has a kit) and the hemp oil regime, said that it took her 4 MONTHS to clear her acne using this method. She has writen on her site that she was ready to give up MANY TIMES in the first two months and was so glad she stuck with it. She had done a ton of research, like Vista, and had come to the conclusion that for people with many closed comedones, hemp is the key. The SA toner breaks up the existing plugs, and the hemp keeps new ones from forming by improving the linoleic acid content of the sebum. Again, given the life cycle of acne (3-4 months) it makes sense that it could take a while. She said she saw nearly NO improvement for the first two months, and then at around that time, started seeing some improvement, with total clearing coming near the end of the 4th month. HTHs!

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would hemp seed oil be just as good as grapeseed oil? i've seen people who recommend it highly above the other oils. if so, what should i look for when buying hemp oil? i have many blocked pores, many of which eventually get inflamed and turn into spots, so i think the oil method would work for me

It is lower in linoleic acid. I posted the numbers here somewhere, but I think it's 50% linoleic acid while safflower and grapeseed are nearly 80%. And I personally didn't think it worked as well for me.

Hi All

Altavista, I have not read the entire thread. Quick question and a bit of backstory. Thank you for all of this interesting info. Sorry for the somewhat longish post....

I have just started a salicylic acid toner/hemp seed oil (very small amount-2drops AM and PM) to change my sebum and unplug my pores. The SA breaks up existing plugs, the hemp seed prevents the formation of new ones over time. I was told it could take 4 months to clear or maybe a bit more....This regimen was developed here:

http://practicalbohemianbeauty.blogspot.com/

http://www.etsy.com/shop/MiriBotanicals

I have chemical sensitivities/weakened immune system and a bladder condition called Interstitial Cystitis. Too much BP (per the regimen on this site) sent my bladder into a horrible flare for 3 days. I am being treated for my condition by a Traditional Chinese Medicine doctor. She wanted me to stop the BP and SA. I did, of course, and foolishly added in jojoba oil!! thinking it did control oil and maybe it would help me transition out of BP-land.

Boy was I ever WRONG. After stopping the BP and SA cold turkey and adding jojoba, my face is loaded with a MILLION whiteheads and blackheads, mostly whiteheads. I have NEVER been this bad in my whole life. A rash of a million bumps across my face. The ones on my cheeks and jaw are really inflammed.

I can tell the hemp is very calming and it is loosening the plugs. I caved today and tried to go get extractions but I can't really use traditional peels/extraction prep, so I brought my hemp oil and steam and the aesthetitican did not know how to extract closed comedones, (I realize, it is tricky....) so not much there. But she did try to convince me that a little BP would get me out of this horrible mess. So then I started thinking, maybe I can tolerate a little BP like I used to be able to do in the past 6 months (I can't use Dan's formula because it flared me). I might put some on for a few hours and then wash it off.

Do you think that the BP will negate the effects of the hemp seed oil? Maybe best I just wash off the BP after a bit. Or do you think I can use them together for a while. My goal is to only use a SA toner, and hemp oil, but I have to get out of this red, bumpy mess.

Thanks for reading, and for any thoughts!!!

I should add that I have not eaten sugar in 8 months (wow, can't beleive that!). No alcohol. No yeast (special diet to heal my gut and bladder). When I had to go off BP, I cut out dairy (sigh) and gluten (sigh). So I am basically paleo for a while, with occasional rice. (Sigh) So diet is probably not a factor.

Congrats on your clearing of your acne!!

BTW, Jordey, if you are reading, you said you tried the hemp oil for 2 months? The woman that developed the SA toner (make at home yourself, she has a kit) and the hemp oil regime, said that it took her 4 MONTHS to clear her acne using this method. She has writen on her site that she was ready to give up MANY TIMES in the first two months and was so glad she stuck with it. She had done a ton of research, like Vista, and had come to the conclusion that for people with many closed comedones, hemp is the key. The SA toner breaks up the existing plugs, and the hemp keeps new ones from forming by improving the linoleic acid content of the sebum. Again, given the life cycle of acne (3-4 months) it makes sense that it could take a while. She said she saw nearly NO improvement for the first two months, and then at around that time, started seeing some improvement, with total clearing coming near the end of the 4th month. HTHs!

The BP will do harm. The linoleic acid will help the skin deal with the harm. And why not just stick with the salicylic acid? possibly look into adding licorice root extract or peppermint. have you tried peppermint tea?

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This study on mice is about the oral administration of fatty acids changing the fatty acid composition in their skin

http://journals.cambridge.org/download.php?file=%2FBJN%2FBJN94_02%2FS0007114505001820a.pdf&code=2f9f3f671ab4257eb810d4d41529542f



Linus Pauling page with links to studies/papers showing that it's not quite true that omega 6 are inflammatory while omega 3s are anti- inflammatory. It isn't that simple. http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/skin/EFA/

As well as on their role in skin, how topical and oral administration is beneficial, etc.

Sunflower seed oil enhanced skin barrier recovery, while mustard seed, olive, and soybean oils delayed skin barrier recovery and, in the case of mustard seed oil, damaged keratinocyte organelles and disrupted the architecture of the stratum corneum (38).

Edited by alternativista

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Epidermal barrier disruption stimulates IL1-Alpha which is a pro-inflammatory cytokene expressed by your keratinocytes (skin cells). And IL1-A stimulates hyperkeratinization which is the over production of malformed skin cells that clog your pores and lead to acne.

In the study below:

In essential fatty acid deficient mice IL-1 alpha was present in all epidermal layers and the dermis, with prominent staining in the stratum corneum. After acute barrier disruption with tape-stripping, IL-1 alpha increased in the epidermis and dermis within 10 min, remained elevated at 2 and 4 h, and decreased to near basal levels by 24 h.

The essential fatty acid they are deficient in is primarily linoleic acid. And by tape stripping, I assume they stuck tape to the poor hairless- skin barrier deficient mice and ripped it off. The levels of IL-1alpha were already elevated above normal levels before they did this due to the impaired skin function due to the deficiency in linoleic acid. Then after they aggravated the situation by ripping tape off, they remained extra elevated for up to 4 hours.

Barrier disruption stimulates interleukin-1 alpha expression and release from a pre-formed pool in murine epidermis.

Source

Dermatology and Medical Services, Veterans Administration Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, USA.

Abstract

Previous studies have shown that barrier disruption increases epidermal mRNA levels of interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha). We used immunohistochemistry to examine IL-1 alpha expression in hairless mouse skin under basal conditions and following barrier abrogation. In untreated mice, IL-1 alpha was present in the dermis and nucleated epidermal layers in a diffuse, generalized pattern. In essential fatty acid deficient mice IL-1 alpha was present in all epidermal layers and the dermis, with prominent staining in the stratum corneum. After acute barrier disruption with tape-stripping, IL-1 alpha increased in the epidermis and dermis within 10 min, remained elevated at 2 and 4 h, and decreased to near basal levels by 24 h. Moreover, intense, perinuclear, basal cell staining appeared at 10 min, persisting until 4 h after barrier disruption. Since the increase in IL-1 alpha immunostaining after acute barrier abrogation precedes the increase in mRNA, we hypothesized that the IL-1 alpha might derive from a pre-formed pool. Prolonged occlusion of normal skin, a treatment that specifically reduces epidermal mRNA levels of IL-1 alpha, decreased basal immunostaining for IL-1 alpha and blunted the increase in IL-1 alpha usually seen following barrier disruption. Moreover, tape-stripping of skin, maintained ex vivo at 4 degrees C, resulted in increased IL-1 alpha immunostaining within the upper nucleated epidermal layers, as well as release of mature IL-1 alpha into the medium, as measured by Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, the stratum corneum attached to the tape contained IL-1 alpha. These studies show that acute barrier disruption induces both the immediate release and dispersion of IL-1 alpha from a pre-formed, epidermal pool, as well as increased IL-1 alpha synthesis; both mechanisms are consistent with a role for IL-1 alpha in the regulation of proinflammatory and homeostatic processes in the skin.

And there are lots of related studies that look like good things to follow up on.

Cited by 16 PubMed Central articles
Edited by alternativista

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So, this study is about how the necessary lipids are stimulated after the your skin is harmed. Which would of course be a part of healing. But is this an example of how are medical and pharmaceutical researchers think? What we need is to damage ourselves in order stimulate healing?

The regulation of epidermal lipid synthesis by permeability barrier requirements.

Source

Metabolism Section (111F), VA Medical Center, San Francisco, CA 94121.

Abstract

A major function of the skin is to prevent the loss of fluids. The barrier to fluid loss resides in the intercellular lipids (primarily sterols, fatty acids, and sphingolipids) of the stratum corneum. The epidermis is a very active site of lipid synthesis and when the permeability barrier is disrupted by topical solvents or detergents a marked stimulation of sterol, fatty acid, and sphingolipid synthesis occurs. Essential fatty acid deficient mice, with a chronic disturbance in barrier function, also have an increase in epidermal lipid synthesis. When the defect in barrier function is artificially corrected by occlusion with a water vapor impermeable membrane the increase in epidermal lipid synthesis is prevented, suggesting that water flux may be a regulatory factor. The activity of the key rate limiting enzyme in cholesterol synthesis, HMG CoA reductase is increased following barrier disruption due to both an increased quantity of enzyme and an increase in activation state. Similarly, the activity of serine palmitoyl transferase, the rate limiting enzyme in sphingolipid synthesis is also increased following barrier disruption. Occlusion prevents the increase in HMG CoA reductase and serine palmitoyl transferase activity. When the increase in epidermal lipid synthesis is inhibited by occlusion the characteristic rapid return of stratum corneum lipids and recovery of barrier function is prevented. Moreover, when epidermal cholesterol synthesis is inhibited by lovastatin, an inhibitor of HMG CoA reductase, the rate of recovery of barrier structure and function is delayed. Similarly, B chloroalanine, an inhibitor of serine palmitoyl transferase and sphingolipid synthesis, also impairs barrier recovery. Thus, disruption of the barrier stimulates epidermal lipid synthesis which provides the lipids necessary for the repair of the barrier. The signals that initiate and coordinate this response are yet to be defined, but the understanding of this process may allow for pharmacological interventions that will specifically disrupt the barrier and allow for the transcutaneous delivery of drugs.

Note the bolded line. An example of how the statin drugs they want everyone to take will harm your skin and accelerate aging. And your epidermis isn't the only tissue it does this to.

Edited by alternativista

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Back to the above elevated IL1alpha in the lipid deficient mice.

In the paper Recent Advances in Acne Pathogenesis Information http://piel-l.org/blog/wp-content/uploads//2011/04/Global-alliance.pdf

page 5:

Jeremy et al23 investigated the initiating events for
acne lesions, and found that immune changes and
inflammatory responses occur before hyperproliferation
of keratinocytes, with a pattern similar to a
type IV delayed hypersensitivity response.
The
immune response is led by CD41 lymphocytes and
macrophages.23 These researchers hypothesize that
the subsequent production of cytokines activates
local endothelial cells, up-regulating inflammatory
vascular markers (E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion
molecule-1 [VCAM-1], intercellular adhesion
molecule-1 [iCAM-1], and human leukocyte antigen-
DR [HLA-DR]) in the vasculature around the
pilosebaceous follicle.23 They further have postulated
that the entire process is initiated by interleukin
(IL)-1a up-regulation in response to a relative linoleic
acid deficiency
caused by excess sebum and perturbation
of barrier function within the follicle.23

Of course, they are going with the idea that excess sebum dilutes the lipids which causes the deficiency in linoleic acid. But I don't think that's the case with everyone. Teen acne, probably. But remember, this deficiency and the associated skin problems applies to all mammals. Like Atopic Dermatitis in dogs. And I really don't think my dog has oily skin. I've seen no sign of that. The opposite, in fact.

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