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Salicylate, Phenol, And Amine Sensitivity Discussion

food sensitivities phenols phenol

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#1 FaceValues

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Posted 11 February 2012 - 01:43 AM

So the more I'm looking into my own sensitivities to phenols and amines as they relate to other issues, including acne, the more I'm learning about their relationship with broader health problems (nevermind that salicylates, phenols, and amines are in practically everything). Having gotten nice and comfy in a place with my diet as it is, looking into these particular sensitivities was kind of alarming. Giving up tea and spices? A lot of fruits and vegetables? Coconut oil?! I haven't undergone a low-salicylate diet or anything but I'm picking up bits of information here and there from this forum, kind of like when I was in the beginning stages of understanding an acne diet connection here on the Nutrition and Holistic Health Forum.

So what are these weird words I'm jabbering on about my precious body/skin being invaded by, you ask? Feingold, a doctor who endorses a low-sal diet, does a pretty good job of summing them up:

Phenols -- "A group of natural and synthetic compounds that are ingested or produced to varying degrees by the body or by microbes in the intestine contain a benzene ring with one or more hydroxyl (OH) groups attached to it. When this attachment occurs, they become phenolic compounds. These compounds possess unique chemical properties. They are very soluble both in organic solvents (like alcohol, ether, and the fatty components of the body) and in water (aqueous solution), where they are strongly acidic. They exert toxic effects in the brain, where normally certain enzymes prevent their accumulation." Salicylates -- "Salicylate is a natural chemical made by many plants. It is chemically related to aspirin, which is a derivative of salicylic acid. It is believed the plant uses it as protection from insects. Although natural salicylates are found in wholesome foods, some individuals have difficulty tolerating even small amounts of them. The reaction to a natural salicylate can be as severe as that to synthetic additives if a person is highly sensitive. Some people are troubled by only one or two, while others are sensitive to all of them."


So salicylates (the "don't eat me" chemicals fruits and vegetables naturally produce to ward off insects, higher in organic foods, think of them as nature's pesticides) and amines (in aged wines and cheeses/fermented foods/leftovers).

Here is the Feingold list of highly phenolic/high salicylate foods: Avoid anything -- food, toiletries, cleaning supplies, art supplies -- that has any of the following ingredients: Synthetic/artificial colors and flavors [for example, FD&C colors, vanillin], BHA, BHT, TBHQ, [all the preceding are made from or related to petroleum], Natural Flavoring (may contain salicylate), Natural Coloring (may contain salicylate), Aspirin and products containing aspirin or salicylic acid, Salicylates, Almonds, Apples, Apricots, Berries (all), Cherries, Chili powder, Cider & cider vinegar (apples), Cloves, Coffee, Cucumbers & pickles, Currants, Grapes & raisins, Nectarines, Oranges, Paprika, Peaches, Peppers (bell & chili), Plums, Prunes, Tangerines, Tea, Tomatoes, Wine & wine vinegar (grapes), Oil of wintergreen (methyl salicylate). Other items to consider are perfumes and fragrances, nitrites and nitrates, monosodium glutamate [MSG], Hydrolized Vegetable Protein [may contain MSG], sulfites/sulfiting agents, benzoates, and corn syrup [made from hydrogen sulfide + corn starch and many other added chemicals].


^Mind you, there have been quite a few members who report reactions from citrus and stone fruit (including almonds) and coffee.

(source: http://www.danasview.net/phenol.htm)

I hope I'm not throwing a wrench in anyone's plans. By no means do I believe you should chuck your DIY sauerkraut project or give up fruits and vegetables. I guess those who could benefit the most from this thread are those who are not experiencing so much as a lull in the inflammation they're experiencing with their body/skin. My throat tingles/feels inflamed fairly often and the more I read about this the more the information seems applicable to me. So I created this thread in which I can compile my findings and of course read what others think of all this.

Edited by corgisoulpower, 11 February 2012 - 02:44 AM.


#2 FaceValues

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Posted 11 February 2012 - 02:33 AM

Alternativista's thread about lectins inhibiting ZAG enzymes (responsible for the "desquamation", or shedding, of the dead skin cells which leads to pores being blocked, keratinization) prompted me to look further into the connection between lectins and other health problems. In a similar way, reading about Food Phenolics (and all the glory of their sub-categories) has exposed me to their correlation with "allergies, hypersensitivities, intolerances, behavior and learning disorders as well as many chronic degenerative disease processes."

A list of hormones/neurotransmitters/compounds/chemicals/organisms that have large groups of (and noteworthy connections with) phenols, alongside more information can be found here.

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More information illustrating the possible connections between phenols, specifically salicylates, and acne/inflammation in general:

Study done on the relationship between TRPV1, the receptors responsible for a "tingling in throat" sensation and general feelings of inflammation (a major concern for those with a salicylate sensitivity), and keratinocyte proliferation.

Abstract:

Transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1), originally described as a central integrator of nociception, is expressed on human epidermal and hair follicle keratinocytes and is involved in regulation of cell growth and death. In human pilosebaceous units, we had shown that TRPV1 stimulation inhibits hair shaft elongation and matrix keratinocyte proliferation, and induces premature hair follicle regression and keratinocyte apoptosis. In the current study, we have explored the role of TRPV1-mediated signaling in sebaceous gland (SG) biology, using a human sebocyte cell culture model (SZ95 sebocytes). Demonstrating that human skin SG in situ and SZ95 sebocytes in vitro express TRPV1, we show that the prototypic TRPV1 agonist, capsaicin, selectively inhibits basal and arachidonic acid-induced lipid synthesis in a dose-, time-, and extracellular calcium-dependent and a TRPV1-specific manner. Low-dose capsaicin stimulates cellular proliferation via TRPV1, whereas higher concentrations inhibit sebocyte growth and induce cell death independent of TRPV1. Moreover, capsaicin suppresses the expression of genes involved in lipid homeostasis and of selected proinflammatory cytokines. Collectively, these findings support the concept that TRPV1 signaling is a significant, previously unreported player in human sebocyte biology and identify TRPV1 as a promising target in the clinical management of inflammatory SG disorders (for example, acne vulgaris).


(source: http://www.nature.co...id2008258a.html)

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I copy-pasted this off of the Salicylate Sensitivity forum I linked in the first post, it seems to put things more into perspective, especially since leaky gut syndrome isn't anything new to the Nutrition Forum. It was originally posted on a website endorsing the Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD), a diet that has a lot in common with a Gut And Psychology Syndrome (GAPS diet) approach.

Phenols and Salicylates: What They Are and Why They Matter
Why Do People React to Them?

In a normal body that has the correct levels of sulphates and liver enzymes, phenols and salicylates are easily metabolized. The body utilizes what it needs from the chemicals and properly disposes of the rest through the bowels. In those whose levels are not normal or in the case of “leaky gut syndrome”, intolerance to this chemical family can occur rather quickly.

Many people with gut issues such as yeast/bacteria overgrowth or digestive diseases can develop salicylate intolerance as a result of “leaky gut” syndrome. Leaky gut is a result of various digestive problems and occurs when the small intestine becomes too damaged to properly filter the size and types of food particles or chemicals that enter the bloodstream. When these improper particles are allowed to repeatedly enter the blood stream the body tries to get rid of them by triggering an immune system response.

Because phenols/salicylates are so common in most foods, a person with a leaky gut will have much higher than normal levels of these chemicals in their blood and can very quickly develop intolerance’s to these specific particles.

http://scdlifestyle....why-it-matters/


Edited by corgisoulpower, 11 February 2012 - 02:42 AM.


#3 alternativista

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Posted 11 February 2012 - 07:59 AM

So if the liver is the key to metabolizing them properly, have you attempted to boost liver function and liver enzymes?

This is interesting because it lists several citrus that give me cysts, but not lemons and limes which don't. Of course, it also doesn't mention key limes which also give me cysts. And you might be interested in knowing that Sweetjade was one of the people who was sensitive to any member of genus prunus and she had leaky gut and PCOS.

On the other hand many phenols are antioxidants and thus anti-inflammatory. Salicylates are anti-inflammatory as well, but they damage intestinal linings and inhibit some anti-inflammatory prostaglandins.

Edited by alternativista, 11 February 2012 - 09:05 AM.


#4 FaceValues

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Posted 11 February 2012 - 01:45 PM

So if the liver is the key to metabolizing them properly, have you attempted to boost liver function and liver enzymes?

This is interesting because it lists several citrus that give me cysts, but not lemons and limes which don't. Of course, it also doesn't mention key limes which also give me cysts. And you might be interested in knowing that Sweetjade was one of the people who was sensitive to any member of genus prunus and she had leaky gut and PCOS.

On the other hand many phenols are antioxidants and thus anti-inflammatory. Salicylates are anti-inflammatory as well, but they damage intestinal linings and inhibit some anti-inflammatory prostaglandins.


I take LiverTox by Jarrow's, MSM, Zinc, and try to eat lots of green and cruciferous veggies. I'm overdue to reread the stickies for more helpful information (it seems everytime I do there's something "new" that I've missed, or simply becomes more applicable).

Yes, Sweetjade's posts are very helpful. I've even seen her posts on other health forums around the web.

It is very confusing as Phenols are antioxidants yet can be harmful to those with a compromised gut.

Edited by corgisoulpower, 11 February 2012 - 01:46 PM.


#5 FaceValues

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Posted 11 February 2012 - 02:15 PM

http://www.sswahs.ns...atesinfoods.pdf

^Study done in '85 about Sal content in foods, one of the most comprehensive studies done on the matter.

#6 FaceValues

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Posted 14 February 2012 - 02:21 PM

People with food intolerance and quite a few other diseases have an over-expression of Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channels (TRP’s) - particularly TRPV1 and TRPA1.

These receptors are activated by many things such as acids, alcohol, voltage, pugnant compounds (like garlic), nitric oxide, VOC’s (a big one for those sensitive to smells), smoke, chloride ( a big one for town water supplies and swimming). They are also primed by things such as hormones (which explains why women have more symptoms around ovulation and in the second half of the menstrual cycle) and other compounds such as histamine and serotonin.

Disregulation of TRP’s can lead to disease because they play a role in calcium signalling and homeostasis of things such as magnesium and calcium. They also are involved in sensing changes in the environment (so if they don't work properly you can be hypersensitive to certain things). TRP’s are often involved in sensing heat - and indeed when activated often give off a heat sensation (many reactions of those with a salicylate sensitivity are “burning” sensations, I know my throat gets particularly inflamed after eating wheat). TRP’s are also capable of setting of a cascade of reactions that actually leads to cell de-granulation and/or inappropriate proliferation/growth disturbances. For more information, here is a good article:

Transient receptor potential cation channels in disease.
Nilius B, Owsianik G, Voets T, Peters JA

http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/17237345

More studies on TRP's:

Protease and Protease-Activated Receptor-2 Signaling in the Pathogenesis of Atopic Dermatitis
Sang Eun Lee... 2010
In addition to endogenous proteases, exogenous proteases from allergens such as house dust mites, cockroaches, certain bacteria, and fungi can also signal the epidermis. A number of biological activities of proteases are mediated, at least in part, by the activation of its receptors, protease-activated receptors (PARs). Recent works have indicated that PAR-2, as a sensor for endogenous as well as exogenous proteases, plays numerous physiological and pathophysiological roles in the skin. In addition, there is increasing evidence that protease and PAR-2 play an important role in the maintenance of epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis. Moreover, abnormal expression or activity of serine proteases and PAR-2 has been associated with several inflammatory skin disorders involving barrier abnormalities, including atopic dermatitis, netherton syndrome (NS), psoriasis, and peeling skin syndrome.




The intestinal barrier and its regulation by neuroimmune factors
å. v. Keita, J. D. Söderholm 2010
"Moreover, a series of studies by Fasano et al. have suggested a physiologic paracrine regulation of TJ permeability via zonulin. Recently, zonulin was identified by proteomics as prehaptoglobulin-2, the precursor of the multifunctional protein haptoglobin-2. Zonulin seems to exert its effects via activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2."
"Tryptase and other proteases can affect epithelial permeability directly via PAR-2 expressed on the basolateral and apical side of epithelial cells, but also indirectly via PAR-2 on enteric nerves and on mast cells themselves. This gives the opportunity for intricate regulation of epithelial function via PAR-2 in a para- and autocrine fashion (see Bueno & Fioramonti, NGM 2008 for review). In brief, it has been shown that peptides that are specific agonists of PAR-2 (for example, SLIGRL) increase paracellular permeability and bacterial translocation in the colon of rats. These effects were mimicked by mast cell supernatant and abolished by tryptase inhibitor. The PAR-2-mediated effects on permeability in rats were inhibited by treatment with antibiotics that reduced expression of PAR-2 on epithelial cells. On the other hand, PAR-2 expression and effects on permeability were unaffected by dexamethasone. These data suggest that bacterial factors are important in regulating PAR-2-mediated effects on epithelial function."



Protease-Activated Receptor 2 Sensitizes the Capsaicin Receptor Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Receptor 1 to Induce Hyperalgesia
Silvia Amadesi... 2004
Abstract
Inflammatory proteases (mast cell tryptase and trypsins) cleave protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) on spinal afferent neurons and cause persistent inflammation and hyperalgesia by unknown mechanisms. We determined whether transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1), a cation channel activated by capsaicin, protons, and noxious heat, mediates PAR2-induced hyperalgesia. PAR2 was coexpressed with TRPV1 in small- to medium-diameter neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), as determined by immunofluorescence. PAR2 agonists increased intracellular [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) in these neurons in culture, and PAR2-responsive neurons also responded to the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin, confirming coexpression of PAR2 and TRPV1. PAR2 agonists potentiated capsaicin-induced increases in [Ca2+]i in TRPV1-transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells and DRG neurons and potentiated capsaicin-induced currents in DRG neurons. Inhibitors of phospholipase C and protein kinase C (PKC) suppressed PAR2-induced sensitization of TRPV1-mediated changes in [Ca2+]i and TRPV1 currents. Activation of PAR2 or PKC induced phosphorylation of TRPV1 in HEK cells, suggesting a direct regulation of the channel. Intraplantar injection of a PAR2 agonist caused persistent thermal hyperalgesia that was prevented by antagonism or deletion of TRPV1. Coinjection of nonhyperalgesic doses of PAR2 agonist and capsaicin induced hyperalgesia that was inhibited by deletion of TRPV1 or antagonism of PKC. PAR2 activation also potentiated capsaicin-induced release of substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide from superfused segments of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, where they mediate hyperalgesia. We have identified a novel mechanism by which proteases that activate PAR2 sensitize TRPV1 through PKC. Antagonism of PAR2, TRPV1, or PKC may abrogate protease-induced thermal hyperalgesia.



Chapter 31 Protease-Activated Receptors: Mechanisms by Which Proteases Sensitize TRPV Channels to Induce Neurogenic Inflammation and Pain
Andrew Grant, Silvia Amadesi, and Nigel W. Bunnett.

Edited by corgisoulpower, 14 February 2012 - 02:31 PM.


#7 alternativista

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Posted 13 March 2012 - 06:22 PM

You should maybe look into methylation. something I've yet to get a grip on, but below is what I've noted and included in my thread:
Methylation:
Various reactions going on in the body involving sulfur. Some of the more relevant methylation reactions would be:
1. turning on detox reactions that detox the body of chemicals, including phenols.

2. "turns on" serotonin, and thus melatonin, production.

People may be under-methylators which leads to depression, fatigue, etc. Or over methylators that can lead to hyperactivity and/or aggression. More info: <a href='http://www.acne.org/messageboard/redirect.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.enzymestuff.com%2Fmethylation.htm' rel='nofollow' target="_blank">http://www.enzymestuff.com/methylation.htm</a> including nutrients needed for methylation.

And this methylation stuff, while I've yet to understand it, affects your genes. It comes up all the time in articles about epiginetics. Important stuff.




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