Accutane = ROS
manganese ---> choline ----> acetylcholine ----> ROS detoxification by way of SOD1 &SOD2
and then this study comes out a few weeks ago....
Acetylcholine Promotes ROS Detoxification Against Hypoxia/reoxygenation-Induced Oxidative Stress Through FoxO3a/PGC-1α Dependent Superoxide Dismutase.
Background/Aims: Acetylcholine (ACh) is known to modulate the cardiac redox environment and thereby suppress reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation during oxidative stress. However, there is little information about its regulation on ROS clearance. Here we investigate the beneficial effects of ACh on superoxide dismutase (SOD) as key ROS-detoxifying enzyme system in cultured rat cardiomyoblasts. Methods: H9c2 cells were subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) to mimic oxidative stress. Western blot was used to detect the expression of SOD and related signaling molecules. Specific protein knockdown was performed with siRNA transfection. Results: ACh treatment on the beginning of reoxygenation decreased ROS and apoptosis. ACh increased ATP synthesis and mitochondrial DNA. Furthermore, ACh significantly reversed H/R-induced reduction in protein expressions and activities of SOD. ACh stimulated peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) and decreased forkhead box subfamily O3a (FoxO3a) phosphorylation. Atropine (muscarinic receptor antagonist) abolished the cytoprotection afforded by ACh. PGC-1α siRNA blocked ACh-induced invigorating effects on SOD2, whereas it did not alter SOD1 and FoxO3a phosphorylation. FoxOSa siRNA drastically decreased the expressions of SOD2 and PGC-1α, while it did not affect SOD1. Conclusion: ACh activates SOD2 within mitochondria through FoxO3a/PGC-1α pathway and up-regulates SOD1 in the cytoplasm, thus protecting against oxidative injury induced by H/R. Our findings provide new insights into mechanisms underlying the cardioprotection of ACh on ROS detoxifying. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Mn and B1 produce ACh
SOD2 is mnSOD so Choline--->acetylcholine activates mnSOD in the mitochondria to detoxify at the cellular level!
mnSOD is directly influened by the amount of manganese consumed.
Edited by tryingtohelp2014, Yesterday, 12:53 AM.