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#81 Packerfan785

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Posted 12 August 2009 - 10:37 PM

AutonomousOne1980 are you clear?

If someone with your knowledge can not beat acne, I feel hopeless. oompf.gif

#82 Packerfan785

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Posted 12 August 2009 - 10:47 PM

Also wondering what you great minds thought about this:

http://hubpages.com/...ented-For-Years

I only skimmed through this topic a couple of times and do not have enough knowledge on the terms to understand it fully without research, but does this fit in to any of your theories or discoveries?

#83 Gregorio Petersen

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Posted 26 October 2009 - 02:37 PM

QUOTE (xebag @ Aug 9 2007, 10:49 PM) <{POST_SNAPBACK}>
QUOTE
There's a substance in nature that's been the subject of a whole lot of worldwide research lately. It's called resveratrol and it's a polyphenol found in such foods as peanuts, grapes (and consequently, wine), and mulberries.

Resveratrol has a whole lot of good things going for it, but the one we're most interested in has to do with estrogen. You see, resveratrol acts as a potent estrogen antagonist (while also acting as an agonist in some tissues, similar to the drugs clomiphene and tamoxifen).

In higher concentrations, it acts as an aromatase inhibitor. That means that it stops the body from whittling away at your Testosterone.

This is cool because if a substance stops Testosterone from being converted to estrogen or estradiol, it not only prevents the nasty effects of estrogen (loss of muscle and strength and accrual of body fat), but it increases your level of Testosterone, leading to additional strength and muscle!

What's equally important is that it won't cause your Testicles to go on vacation, i.e. shrink. The testicles don't get a signal from the pituitary to shut down because estrogen has been curtailed!

There's a lot of good data in animal models to back this up. Studies have demonstrated a resveratrol-fueled increase in Luteinizing Hormone and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (the pituitary hormones that signal the testicles to start producing Testosterone) that's 2.7 times greater than placebo.

Additionally, resveratrol caused a 76% increase in sperm count, all of this without any adverse effects. (1)

The aromatase inhibition is thought to occur through two mechanisms: reducing the expression of aromatase, as well as binding to the enzyme and preventing it from doing its dirty work.

And, unlike conventional aromatase inhibitors, resveratrol doesn't cause a decline in endothelial (blood vessel) function. In fact, it seems to improve it! (2-12)

And remember those nasty xenoestrogens I mentioned earlier? Resveratrol seems to occupy the receptor sites, or biological "parking lots," so that these xenoestrogens can't "park" in their spots. That's good.


MORE GOOD STUFF

While athletes should no doubt be excited about these Testosterone-increasing, estrogen-lowering effects of resveratrol, male and female Life Extension people have been all over this substance for other reasons.

An overwhelming amount of literature on resveratrol has demonstrated potent cardiovascular benefits, anti-aging effects, powerful anti-cancer effects, anti-arthritic, and neurological effects (e.g. potential benefits in treating Alzheimer's Disease). Many of these benefits seem to stem from anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects as well as gene modulation. (13-21)

What the Life Extension people are most excited about, though, is that resveratrol might actually extend lifespan.

Remember those calorie deprivation people that believed you could extend your lifespan considerably by just munching on a ridiculously low number of calories each day?

Well, one proposed mechanism by which calorie deprivation can make you live longer is that it activates a protein called SIRT1 (sirtuin 1). Activation of this protein inhibits PPAR-gamma activity and this causes your body to burn fat.

It's not hard to imagine that having less fat might cause you to live longer, but remarkably, resveratrol activates this very same SIRT1 protein.

So even if you're not concerned with extending your life at this point, resveratrol can cause your body to burn fat.

Maybe you've heard of the "French Paradox" (and no, it has nothing to do with why their star soccer player would head butt a guy in the finals of the World Cup)?

It's the medical puzzle where certain populations (French and Greek) seem to experience a low incidence of coronary heart disease while eating a diet high in saturated fat. Epidemiologists have reasoned that it has to do with their daily consumption of red wine.

Well, many researchers have gone one step further and concluded that it was the resveratrol in the wine that was responsible for the French Paradox. (22-25)

This miracle substance has also been shown to have impressive anti-fungal and anti-viral properties, and may even protect the liver from excessive alcohol consumption or oxidative damage from taking too much acetaminophen. (26-39)

If all that wasn't enough, there's a good deal of data demonstrating that resveratrol is an extremely promising compound for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer! (40-48)

So if taking Testosterone-boosting supplements has made you wary before because of possible prostate risks, resveratrol seems like the answer to your prayers.


QUIT TEASING ME

Quit teasing you? Oh, okay.

If there's an exciting compound out there, Tim and I want it; we want it for ourselves and we figure that if we want it, chances are you want it too.

That's why Biotest has been working on the isolation of pure resveratrol for the last year, and why we're introducing our newest supplement, REZ-V. Each bottle of REZ-V contains 72 tablets of the purest, highest-grade of resveratrol possible.

Our recommended dosage of REZ-V is three tablets once per day. It's best to take one large dose of resveratrol, instead of several smaller doses, because of the way it's metabolized. In essence, you want to overwhelm the body's ability to inactivate and excrete resveratrol, which is done through sulfation and glucuronidation (adding sulfate and beta-glucuronide groups).

This "overwhelming" process is accomplished at about 200 mg taken in one shot. A three-tablet dose contains 300 mg of pure resveratrol, which is also the dose we believe delivers the greatest benefit for the least cost.

Unlike a lot of other supplements, REZ-V doesn't have to be cycled. In fact, because of the super-powerful health and protective benefits, we recommend all males over 18 take REZ-V every day.


With REZ-V you get the following possible benefits:

• Acts as both an estrogen antagonist and an aromatase inhibitor.

• Increases Testosterone without causing testicular shutdown

• Promotes blood vessel health and cardiovascular health in general

• Exhibits anti-cancer effects, particularly anti prostate-cancer effects

• Exhibits anti-aging effects

• Promotes fat loss

• Has anti-inflammatory properties

• Acts as an anti-oxidant

• Exhibits anti-arthritic effects

• Shows anti-fungal and anti-viral effects

• Acts as a liver protectant

Excuse me for saying so, but that's all pretty damn cool.

The cost for this wonder supplement? An extraordinarily low $34.99 per bottle. That's a whole lot of benefit for not a whole lot of money.

Whether you're interested in increased Testosterone and decreased estrogen, along with reduced levels of body fat, or just want to be healthier and possibly live longer, REZ-V has got to be part of your daily supplement arsenal.


References

1. Juan ME, et al. "trans-Resveratrol, a natural antioxidant from grapes, Increases sperm output in healthy rats." J Nutr. 2005 Apr;135(4):757-60.

2. Bhat KP, et al. "Estrogenic and antiestrogenic properties of resveratrol in mammary tumor models." Cancer Res. 2001 Oct 15;61(20):7456-63.

3. Henry LA, Witt DM. "Resveratrol: phytoestrogen effects on reproductive physiology and behavior in female rats." Horm Behav. 2002 Mar;41(2):220-8.

4. Matsumura A, Ghosh A, Pope GS, Darbre PD. "Comparative study of oestrogenic properties of eight phytoestrogens in MCF7 human breast cancer cells." J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2005 Apr;94(5):431-43.

5. Bowers JL, et al. "Resveratrol acts as a mixed agonist/antagonist for estrogen receptors alpha and beta." Endocrinology. 2000 Oct;141(10):3657-67.

6. Lu R, Serrero G. "Resveratrol, a natural product derived from grape, exhibits antiestrogenic activity and inhibits the growth of human breast cancer cells." J Cell Physiol. 1999 Jun;179(3):297-304.

7. Turner RT, et al. "Is resveratrol an estrogen agonist in growing rats?" Endocrinology. 1999 Jan;140(1):50-4.

8. Bhat KP, Pezzuto JM. "Resveratrol exhibits cytostatic and antiestrogenic properties with human endometrial adenocarcinoma (Ishikawa) cells." Cancer Res. 2001 Aug 15;61(16):6137-44.

9. Wang Y, et al. "The Red Wine Polyphenol Resveratrol Displays BI-Level Inhibition on Aromatase in Breast Cancer Cells." Toxicol Sci. 2006 Apr 11; E-Published Ahead of Print

10. Wallerath T, et al. "A blend of polyphenolic compounds explains the stimulatory effect of red wine on human endothelial NO synthase." Nitric Oxide. 2005 Mar;12(2):97-104.

11. Lekakis J, et al. "Polyphenolic compounds from red grapes acutely improve endothelial function in patients with coronary heart disease." Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2005 Dec;12(6):596-600.

12. Buluc M, Demirel-Yilmaz E. "Resveratrol decreases calcium sensitivity of vascular smooth muscle and enhances cytosolic calcium increase in endothelium." Vascul Pharmacol. 2006 Apr;44(4):231-7.

13. Labinskyy N, et al. "Vascular dysfunction in aging: potential effects of resveratrol, an anti-inflammatory phytoestrogen." Curr Med Chem. 2006;13(9):989-96.

14. Bhat KPL, et al. "Biological effects of resveratrol." Antioxid Redox Signal. 2001 Dec;3(6):1041-64.

15. Bradamante S, et al. "Cardiovascular protective effects of resveratrol." Cardiovasc Drug Rev. 2004 Fall;22(3):169-88.

16. de la Lastra CA & Villegas I. "Resveratrol as an anti-inflammatory and anti-aging agent: mechanisms and clinical implications." Mol Nutr Food Res. 2005 May;49(5):405-30.

17. Delmas D, Jannin B, Latruffe N. "Resveratrol: preventing properties against vascular alterations and ageing." Mol Nutr Food Res. 2005 May;49(5):377-95.

18. Valenzano DR, et al. "Resveratrol prolongs lifespan and retards the onset of age-related markers in a short-lived vertebrate." Curr Biol. 2006 Feb 7;16(3):296-300.

19. Marambaud P, Zhao H, Davies P. "Resveratrol promotes clearance of Alzheimer's disease amyloid-beta peptides." J. Biol. Chem 2005 Nov;280(45): 37377-37382

20. Molnar V, Garai J. "Plant-derived anti-inflammatory compounds affect MIF tautomerase activity." Int Immunopharmacol. 2005 May;5(5):849-56.

21. Elmali N, et al. "Effect of resveratrol in experimental osteoarthritis in rabbits." Inflamm Res. 2005 Apr;54(4):158-62.

22. Kopp P. "Resveratrol, a phytoestrogen found in red wine. A possible explanation for the conundrum of the 'French paradox'?" Eur J Endocrinol. 1998 Jun;138(6):619-20.

23. Constant, J. "Alcohol, ischemic heart disease, and the French paradox." Coron. Artery Dis. 1997; 8:645 — 649.

24. Das, D K, et al. "Cardioprotection of red wine: role of polyphenolic antioxidants." Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1999;25(2-3):115-20.

25. Soleas GJ, Diamandis EP, Goldberg DM. "The world of resveratrol." Adv Exp Med Biol. 2001;492:159-82.

26. Wyke SM, Tisdale MJ. "Induction of protein degradation in skeletal muscle by a phorbol ester involves upregulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway." 2006 May;78(25):2898-2910

27. Tisdale MJ. "The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway as a therapeutic target for muscle wasting." J Support Oncol. 2005 May-Jun;3(3):209-17.

28. Wyke SM, Russell ST, Tisdale MJ. "Induction of proteasome expression in skeletal muscle is attenuated by inhibitors of NF-kappaB activation." Br J Cancer. 2004 Nov 1;91(9):1742-50.

29. Borra MT, Smith BC, Denu JM. "Mechanism of human SIRT1 activation by resveratrol." J Biol Chem. 2005 Apr 29;280(17):17187-95.

30. Picard F, et al. "Sirt1 promotes fat mobilization in white adipocytes by repressing PPAR-gamma." Nature. 2004 Jun 17;429(6993):771-6.

31. Wolf G. "Calorie restriction increases life span: a molecular mechanism." Nutr Rev. 2006 Feb;64(2 Pt 1):89-92.

32. Ingram DK, et al. "Calorie restriction mimetics: an emerging research field." Aging Cell. 2006 Apr;5(2):97-108.

33. Roth GS, Lane MA, Ingram DK. "Caloric restriction mimetics: the next phase." Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005 Dec;1057:365-71.

34. Tian WX. "Inhibition of fatty acid synthase by polyphenols." Curr Med Chem. 2006;13(8):967-77.

35. Kasdallah-Grissa A, et al. "Protective effect of resveratrol on ethanol-induced lipid peroxidation in rats." Alcohol Alcohol. 2006 May-Jun;41(3):236-9

36. Sener G, et al. "Protective effects of resveratrol against acetaminophen-induced toxicity in mice." Hepatol Res. 2006 Apr 1; E-Published Ahead of Print

37. Docherty JJ, et al. "Effect of resveratrol on herpes simplex virus vaginal infection in the mouse." Antiviral Res. 2005 Sep;67(3):155-62.

38. Jung HJ, et al. "Fungicidal effect of resveratrol on human infectious fungi." Arch Pharm Res. 2005 May;28(5):557-60.

39. Palamara AT, et al. "Inhibition of influenza A virus replication by resveratrol." J Infect Dis. 2005 May 15;191(10):1719-29.

40. Yoo KM, et al. "Potent Inhibitory Effects of Resveratrol Derivatives on Progression of Prostate Cancer Cells." Arch Pharm (Weinheim). 2006 Apr 18;339(5):238-241

41. Jones SB, et al. "Resveratrol-induced gene expression profiles in human prostate cancer cells." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005 Mar;14(3):596-604.

42. Scifo C, et al. "Resveratrol and propolis as necrosis or apoptosis inducers in human prostate carcinoma cells." Oncol Res. 2004;14(9):415-26.

43. Kim YA, et al. "Antiproliferative effect of resveratrol in human prostate carcinoma cells." J Med Food. 2003 Winter;6(4):273-80.

44. Stewart JR, Artime MC, O'Brian CA. "Resveratrol: a candidate nutritional substance for prostate cancer prevention." J Nutr. 2003 Jul;133(7 Suppl):2440S-2443S.

45. Ratan HL, et al. "Resveratrol — a prostate cancer chemopreventive agent?" Urol Oncol. 2002 Nov-Dec;7(6):223-7.

46. Aggarwal BB, et al. "Role of resveratrol in prevention and therapy of cancer: preclinical and clinical studies." Anticancer Res. 2004 Sep-Oct;24(5A):2783-840.

47. Aziz MH, Kumar R, Ahmad N. "Cancer chemoprevention by resveratrol: in vitro and in vivo studies and the underlying mechanisms (review)." Int J Oncol. 2003 Jul;23(1):17-28.

48. Delmas D, et al. "Resveratrol as a chemopreventive agent: a promising molecule for fighting cancer." Curr Drug Targets. 2006 Apr;7(4):423-42.




Any thoughts?

(3, 5, 4-trihydroxystilbene) is a polyphenolic phytoalexin, stilbenoid, and is produced in the plants when attacked by pathogens like bacteria or fungi. It has come to become one of the major Anti-Aging drugs today. One who is becoming old and one who wants to defy it, doctors now a day's first suggest POLYGONUM CUSIDATUM Resveratrol Supplements and capsules. The wonder drug if taken on a regular basis will improve the functioning of mitochondria (cell part), activate SIRTUIN 1(SIRT 1) and PGC-1, and thus increase the aging of the body and enhances the existence of patient's life. Seeing yourself getting old is terrible feeling. This terrible feeling can be surely sorted out if one takes Resveratrol supplements on regular basis.

Edited by Gregorio Petersen, 26 October 2009 - 02:38 PM.


#84 alternativista

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Posted 04 March 2011 - 11:40 AM

While looking for more info on insulinemic response to foods, I came across this on PPARs and this study on the consumption of acetic acid from vinegar:
http://www.life-enha...ate.asp?id=2292

analyzed for SREBP-1, an enzyme that regulates gene expression of lipogenic (fat manufacturing) enzymes and PPARalpha, a gene that regulates fatty acid oxidation, in the liver, where (the authors explain) almost all acetate in the portal circulation is metabolized. They also looked at possible changes in other lipogenic enzymes, including FAS (fatty acid synthase) and ACC; however, they found no changes in these. What the researchers found was that PPARalpha gene expression in both the high and low-dose groups was significantly upregulated.



PPARs is something I've been meaning to get a better understanding of, but really all I know is it effects hyperkeratinization and improved blood sugar/insulin/insulin sensitivity helps. I guess PPARs is at the root of how elevated insulin/insulin resistance results in hyperkeratinization and thus acne. Or rather, one of the ways. There's also the stimulation of IGF-1

And here's a link to a Sweetjade post on the matter on healthboards:
http://www.healthboa...mp;postcount=43


if we eat foods that support insulin resistance we can increase our production of PPAR-beta/delta receptors cells that are responsible for 95% sebum production, inflammation, as well as hyperkeritinization. Yet if we eat in a way that decreases Insulin Resistance we can also upregulate PPAR-alpha & PPAR-gamma (oppose PPAR-beta/delta) and the cells will differentiate normally!



Article on acetic acid improving insulin sensitivity/lessening insulinemic and glycemic response to foods: http://www.life-enha...ate.asp?ID=1711

Edited by alternativista, 16 April 2012 - 03:50 PM.


#85 alternativista

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Posted 16 April 2012 - 12:07 PM

Linoleic acid also affects PPAR. and the permeability of acne prone skin (as well as the skin of dogs prone to skin problems and flea sensitivity which is what lead me to research it) Our skin/sebum has been found to be deficient (us, the dogs, and probably every person or animal sensitive to fleas, mites and other insects and/or prone to skin conditions)

Thread:
http://www.acne.org/...cneskin-health/

I'm also assembling a lot of info on PPARs here:
http://www.acne.org/...ost__p__3234960 not that it's coherent yet. It's mostly a lot of stuff copied and pasted from elsewhere (Mostly here)with only minor attempts at organization.

And here's info on beta carotene and sunlight and retinoid metabolism in our skin: http://www.acne.org/...ost__p__3229786


Phytosphingosine is another thing to look into.

Phytosphingosine Stimulates the Differentiation of Human Keratinocytes and Inhibits TPA-Induced Inflammatory Epidermal Hyperplasia in Hairless Mouse Skin
http://www.ncbi.nlm....vailable here.

The binding of sphingoid bases to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) has been detected in a solid-phase binding assay. ...
The 3 PPAR isoforms, PPARα, PPARβ/δ and PPARγ, have been identified in keratinocytes. PPARα and PPARγ are expressed at low levels but their levels increase dramatically during keratinocyte differentiation. In contrast, the predominant isotype, PPARβ/δ, is significantly induced under conditions of keratinocyte proliferation. Substantial evidence has accumulated that implicates PPARs in the regulation of epidermal differentiation and skin barrier homeostasis. Administration of PPARα activators was shown to stimulate differentiation and inhibit proliferation in rodent keratinocytes (1) and to promote development of the fetal epidermal permeability barrier (2). Recently, it was reported that topical treatment with PPAR agonists accelerates the differentiation and reverses the induced inflammatory hyperproliferation of murine epidermis (3,4). These results suggest that PPARs hold great promise for the therapy of skin conditions characterized by hyperproliferation, inflammatory infiltrates, and aberrant differentiation, such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis (5)
Result:
Phytosphingosine Increased the Transcriptional Activity of PPARs and the Expression of PPARγ Gene
Phytosphingosine Inhibited the Proliferation and Stimulated the Differentiation of Human Epidermal Keratinocytes




Linoleic acid is a major component of sphingosine. I tried to find a simple explaination of how it's made in our body, but no luck. There seem to be different kinds. CoA and Choline were mentioned. It's in a lot of skin and scalp care products and looks like it tends to be made industrially using yeasts. CoEnzyme A is an important factor in fat metabolism.


Also here it says: http://lipidlibrary....s/lcb/index.htm

Synthesis of sphingoid bases de novo is essential in most organisms, and indeed in animals dietary sphingoids are largely degraded in the intestines. Inhibition of these pathways affects growth and viability.

Perhaps we have something inhibiting the pathways to their production??
and

The basic mechanism for the biosynthesis of sphinganine involves condensation of palmitoyl-coenzyme A with serine, catalysed by a membrane-bound enzyme requiring pyridoxal 5’-phosphate, serine palmitoyltransferase, on the cytosolic side of the endoplasmic reticulum in animal cells as illustrated to form 3-keto-sphinganine. This is believed to be the key regulatory or rate-limiting step in ceramide biosynthesis, and elimination of this enzyme is embryonically fatal in mammals and fruit flies. The specificity of the enzyme controls the chain-length of the base, as other fatty acyl-coA groups can be utilized but with lower efficiency.


I tried googling phytosphingosine deficiency and things like enzymes beta-glucosidases and beta-galactosidases, vitamin B6, and EFA linoleic acid

Here's a study involving phytosphingosine and acne:http://personal-care...sphingosine.pdf

Here's a blog post about an acne treatment based on it
http://www.acneassas...on-skin-lipids/
"Recent studies with Phytosphingosine, taken over a period of 60 days with 30 acnesufferers (15 male and 15 female) with an average age of 20 years and moderate inflamed acne, the combination treatmentreducedblackheadsand pustules(inflamed pimple) by 72 per cent and 60 per cent respectively, whereas treatmentwithbenzoyl peroxidealone led to reductions of 22 and 32 per cent. They also tested the efficacy of Phytosphingosine versus a placebo treatment (using the same type of test group), concluding that Phytosphingosine was significantly better than the placebo treatment in controlling the development of new blackheads, and noticeable reducing the number of pustules."




Info sheet on active ingredients in some products for dogs. http://www.douxo.us/...sphingosine.pdf

Edited by alternativista, 02 July 2012 - 02:17 PM.


#86 duracell

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Posted 19 April 2012 - 10:18 PM

@ Alternavista

for us people who are confused enough about zinc and probitoics and vitamin this and vitamin that. can you PLEASE provide a summary that tells us if we should buy this stuff for our acne problems and if so...where do we get it?

#87 alternativista

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Posted 20 April 2012 - 10:34 AM

@ Alternavista

for us people who are confused enough about zinc and probitoics and vitamin this and vitamin that. can you PLEASE provide a summary that tells us if we should buy this stuff for our acne problems and if so...where do we get it?


Ideally you get it all from food. Except don't go out of your way to consume more linoleic acid. Apply it topically.

Do you visit the Nutrition forum?

#88 duracell

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Posted 20 April 2012 - 03:58 PM

I have. that's why i'm not eating dairy or gluten right now. actually my diet almost entirely consists of chicken, eggs, water, cucumbers (occasionally)

#89 alternativista

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Posted 20 April 2012 - 08:33 PM

I have. that's why i'm not eating dairy or gluten right now. actually my diet almost entirely consists of chicken, eggs, water, cucumbers (occasionally)


No greens? Is this part of an elimination diet?


I have. that's why i'm not eating dairy or gluten right now. actually my diet almost entirely consists of chicken, eggs, water, cucumbers (occasionally)


No greens? Is this part of an elimination diet? Chlorella and spiralina are good supplements. Also look into green smoothies and bone broths.


#90 duracell

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Posted 20 April 2012 - 08:49 PM

no it's just that I don't have any lying around my house ha. but i should buy some broccoli. ate some spinach and carrots today

I had not come across Chlorella and spiralina before... what is that? should i get it in pill forms? what brands do u recommend?

#91 alternativista

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Posted 12 June 2012 - 11:19 AM

Related thread on how skin prone to problems, such as acne, is deficient in linoleic acid. Something that improves the PPAR balance along with inhibiting DHT, melanin, and being an important part of what makes skin/sebum a strong protective barrier rather than an easily permeated and damaged prone to all kinds of problems.

http://www.acne.org/...on/page__st__60

#92 jordeyy

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Posted 22 August 2012 - 11:24 AM

i've seen alot of places where it says taking a resveratrol supplement wont have a massive impact on PPAR, so topical could be better, but there arent any products i can see for acne. would it possible to make one at home?

#93 alternativista

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Posted 02 January 2013 - 12:08 PM

-The relationship of diet and acne http://www.ncbi.nlm....les/PMC2836431/ Full paper. Big section on PPARS, lipids in sebum, etc.

-Antiproliferative effect of vitamin A and D analogues on adult human keratinocytes in vitro. http://www.ncbi.nlm....ubmed/18509257/

#94 doodleme123

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Posted 02 January 2013 - 03:15 PM

-The relationship of diet and acne http://www.ncbi.nlm....les/PMC2836431/ Full paper. Big section on PPARS, lipids in sebum, etc.

-Antiproliferative effect of vitamin A and D analogues on adult human keratinocytes in vitro. http://www.ncbi.nlm....ubmed/18509257/


Excellent find, and a very good read.