The University of Iowa Cancer Center, Iowa City, 52242, USA. email@example.com
The purpose of this study was to determine the maximum tolerated dose and dose-limiting toxicities of fish oil fatty acid capsules containing omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters. Twenty-two patients with neoplastic disease not amenable to curative therapy who had lost 2% of body weight over a previous 1 month time period were given an escalating dose of fish oil fatty acids. The maximum tolerated dose was found to be 0.3 g/kg per day of this preparation. This means that a 70-kg patient can generally tolerate up to 21 1-g capsules/day containing 13.1 g of eicosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid, the two major omega-3 fatty acids. Dose-limiting toxicity was gastrointestinal, mainly diarrhea, and a poorly described toxicity designated as "unable to tolerate in esophagus or stomach." A patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia taking the fish oil provided an unusual opportunity to perform a detailed biochemical study of the effect of fish oil capsules on the lipids of malignant cells at several sequential time points in treatment. Studies of the malignant lymphocytes, serum, and whole blood of this one patient revealed an increase in eicosapentaenoic acid, the major component of the fish oil capsules, during fish oil capsule treatment. This study provides a scientific basis for the selection of omega-3 fatty acid doses for future studies in cancer. The maximum tolerated dose found is considerably higher than anticipated from published studies of many human diseases. The observation of a modification of the lipids of leukemic cells, serum, and blood in a patient with chronic leukemia provides a biochemical basis for a possible effect of fish oil supplements on cancer cachexia and tumor growth.
Prisco D; Paniccia R; Bandinelli B; Filippini M; Francalanci I; Giusti B; Giurlani L; Gensini GF; Abbate R; Neri Serneri GG
Institute of Clinica Medica Generale e Cardiologia, University of Florence, Italy.
Several studies have shown that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are able to lower blood pressure (BP) in humans, but large doses of fish oils have been often used. Moreover, most of the studies available in the literature were not able to evaluate the specific effects of n-3 PUFA because they employed fish oils which contain, together with n-3 PUFA, many other different components. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate if medium-term supplementation with a moderate dose of highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ethyl esters is able to reduce BP in mild hypertensive patients. Sixteen mild essential hypertensive (diastolic BP: 95-104 mm Hg), non-diabetic, normolipidemic male outpatients and 16 normotensive male controls were recruited to participate in the study. Both hypertensive and control subjects were randomly assigned to receive either EPA and DHA ethyl esters (2.04 g EPA and 1.4 g DHA) as active treatment or olive oil (4 g/day) as a placebo for a period of 4 months. These subjects were followed up with 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring and blood chemistry analyses at 2 and 4 months of treatment and 2 months after its discontinuation. The intake of n-3 PUFA was checked by red blood cell (RBC) phosphatidylcholine (PC) fatty acid composition. The effect of n-3 PUFA on BP in the active group was maximum after 2 months. Both systolic (-6 mm Hg, p<0.05) and diastolic (-5 mm Hg, p<0.05) BP significantly decreased during the n-3 PUFA ethyl ester supplementation. No further effect was observed at 4 months with a return to baseline values during the recovery period. These data indicate that 4 g/day of highly purified EPA + DHA ethyl esters are able to favorably affect BP in mild hypertensives.
Young GS; Conquer JA; Thomas R
Human Biology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 5B6, Canada.
Dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids has been positively correlated with cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric health in several studies. The high seafood intake by the Japanese and Greenland Inuit has resulted in low ratios of the omega-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), with the Japanese showing AA:EPA ratios of approximately 1.7 and the Greenland Eskimos showing ratios of approximately 0.14. It was the objective of this study to determine the effect of supplementation with high doses (60 g) of flax and fish oils on the blood phospholipid (PL) fatty acid status, and AA/EPA ratio of individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), commonly associated with decreased blood omega-3 fatty acid levels. Thirty adults with ADHD were randomized to 12 weeks of supplementation with olive oil (< 1% omega-3 fatty acids), flax oil (source of alpha-linolenic acid; 18:3n-3; alpha-LNA) or fish oil (source of EPA and docosahexaenoic acid; 22:6n-3; DHA). Serum PL fatty acid levels were determined at baseline and at 12 weeks. Flax oil supplementation resulted in an increase in alpha-LNA and a slight decrease in the ratio of AA/EPA, while fish oil supplementation resulted in increases in EPA, DHA and total omega-3 fatty acids and a decrease in the AA/EPA ratio to values seen in the Japanese population. These data suggest that in order to increase levels of EPA and DHA in adults with ADHD, and decrease the AA/EPA ratio to levels seen in high fish consuming populations, high dose fish oil may be preferable to high dose flax oil. Future study is warranted to determine whether correction of low levels of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids is of therapeutic benefit in this population.
Unfortunately, none these have a thing to do w/acne, but they do show some very high doses being safely taken.
wow i can take that much? 60 grams seems like alot.
Thanks for joining me at the research front, now people wont think im making all this stuff up.hehe